BY: ALFFIAN WALUKOW
CHAPTER - I
Konda Sangiang WULAENG
To appreciate the culture Sangihe, you should understand oral literary Sangihe, humanities oral Sangihe is one proof of Sangihe cultural heritage of the past which are still preserved until today. From some of the most Sangihe oral literary legend is the story Gumansalangi. From this story we can see where Sangihe of the population until the early formation of the kingdoms that became the basis of the formation of a tribe called tribe Sangihe. Acts as resident Gumansalangi first fully reflected in the "Tamo" since Tamo had animates Sangiang Konda birth as the mother of the people Sangihe. Gumansalangi story and the establishment of the kingdom had already written a lot of people even if only in the writings of loose, not in a very complete book.
There are many writings that comes with years of events, but can not be recognized because of all the stories about Gumansalangi, never recorded in the past resulting in confusion. Maybe the full story about Sangihe may be traced in the Netherlands for more scientific certainty mandapatkan and can be recognized by the broader public.
As the proverb says "no cane akarpun so". We as a new generation can no longer wait for "government" to fund research and writing about the history and culture Sangihe is comprehensive. As more people Sangihe "ndak" want to care, than who are called to do dig up cultural treasures.
Gumansalangi figure has been told for centuries in Sangihe through oral stories from generation kegenerasi hereditary. Since the influx of Europeans, Gumansalangi stories were written by the humanists, historians and students of history and culture of other Sangihe in the form of freelance writing.
Gumansalangi story was first translated in December 1993 at Biola University - Los Angeles. Gumansalangi latest story was written by Kenneth R. Maryott, an American who worked as a lecturer in English at Philliphin in a book called "Manga wĕkeng Origin 'u Tau Sangihe". The book was written in three languages namely Sangihe, English and Indonesian language, published by "The Committee For The Promotion Of The Sangir Language, Davao - Phillphiness, 1995. Kenneth acted as an editor, based on the narrative of Mr. Haremson E. Juda. Besides, there are also stories about Makaampo. Makaampo story was first written and published under the title "Bĕkeng Makaampo (The Story of Makaampo)" from the journal article "Magazine Bijdragen tot de Taal, - Land - en Volkendkunde, Volume 113 (1957)
Gumansalangi story comes from Sangihe Talaud islands, which told as folklore or folklore. (Folklore is an element of culture from the past that led to the brink of extinction). Many stories that developed in the islands Sangihe about Gumansalangi but the point is about the first inhabitants Sangihe. The problem is who and where Gumansalangi the truth - truth. At any time until the truth would not be possible to find scientific secarah who Gumansalangi. The cause is not found evidence of ancient manuscripts or inscriptions through the writing or provide a snapshot of life Gumansalangi. It occurs also in some other folklore disulawesi north as the story Toar and Lumimuut of Minahasa, stories and his wife Tendeduata Gumalangi sourdough Bolaang Mongondow, a story like this remain a legend.
Why Gumansalangi story has many forms, from the story line as well as compliance with Sangihe history. This is caused by several things: The story is a literary Gumansalangi oral, which is only told from mouth to mouth, this situation allows the various changes. Changes can be made based on who first tells, who listens, to whom the story is derived and the environment of what the story was developed.
Based on several stories that developed in the community Sangihe there are several stories based on where the story was developed including; story Gumansalangi version Siau, Stories Gumansalangi Talaud version, version of the story Gumansalangi large Sangihe island. Among his own people Sangihe there are several forms, such as version Gumansalangi stories from people who are in the former royal kingdom Tabukan Tabukan and beyond. Among several versions can be exposed to some versions have differences.
a. The first version (version Siau)
Gumansalangi is first on the island of Sangihe kulano large. Gumansalangi bersiteri Ondaasa called also Sangiangkonda or Kondawulaeng. Gumansalangi is the Crown Prince of the empire Cotabato, Mindanao southern end of the XII century. They were ordered to leave by the father ketimur Gumansalangi with the intent that they might establish a new kingdom. They traveled by riding the snake flew up into Marulung Island (Island dressing), then keselatan Mandolokang to the island (the island Taghulandang) this island they did not go down but continued on to another island and down past the island of Siau island of Sangihe.
On the way, were also brother of Kondaasa Bawangunglare named Prince. They then landed on the beach Saluhe. Later the name changed to Saluhang Saluhe and now a Salurang.
Because Gumansalangi is a nobleman then the place is called the berararti Saluhang "dieluk hailed" and maintained that he is growing well and flourishing. Since the arrival Gumansalangi and Kondaasa in saluhe, always heard the roar and seen lightning that comes from the mountain. Then given a degree Medellu Gumansalangi which means Thunder and awarded Kondaasa Mengkila which means lightning. Kondaasa Gumansalangi and has two sons named Melintangnusa and Melikunusa.
Gumansalangi then set up a kingdom in the year 1300. Kingdom until the Malurung (Balut Island / Philliphina). Kondaasa brother traveled to the islands on the island Kabaruan Talaud precisely. Until now the first place whereon the Prince Bawangunglare, named Prince.
Gumansalangi handed to the king's heir Melintangnusa his eldest son in 1350. Melikunusa youngest child wanders into Mongondow and memperisteri Menongsangiang Mongondow.Melikunusa princess died in Mongondow while Melintangnusa Philliphina died in the year 1400. Malintangnusa after his death, the kingdom that is divided into two kingdoms named Sahabe or Lumage North and South kingdoms named Manuwo or Salurang. (From a few students of history off the record Sangihe).
b. The second version
The formation of the first kingdom of the story is rooted Sangihe Gumansalangi. Humansandulage Tendensehiwu wives and begot Datung Dellu. Datung Dellu bersiteri Hiwungelo and begot Gumansalangi.
Gumansalangi, after a gain of Molibagu Ondaasa sail through the islands Space, Tagulandang, Biaro, Siau continue to Mindanao kepulau Sangihe later, they arrived at last climbed Mount Kauhis Sahendarumang and stayed there until the formation of the first kingdom named Tampungang Lawo Sangihe in 1425.
(Iverdikson Tinungki in tabloids Zone north)
c. The third version
Gumansalangi is the son of a king of a small empire Philiphina southern region. His mother died when Gumansalangi still small. The king then married again with another woman and gave birth to a daughter. At a party the princess on the orders of his mother affect the King with a request and say "wealth does not matter to me what I want is for him to kill Gumansalangi. This request was done so that the crown does not fall into the hands Gumansalangi.
The desire was known by Batahalawo and Batahasulu or Manderesulu the magic kingdom Gumansalangi followers, they then plan on Gumansalangi meberitahukan. Batahalawo then threw a headband (poporong) sea which later became Dumalombang menjelmah great dragon or serpent. Dumalombang bring Gumansalangi fly and arrive at a cliff Mênanawo Rane and then around the hill Bowong Panamba, areng Dumêga and goats. On arrival a new place, every night just listening to the sound Gumansalangi owl or Tanalawo, another meaning of Tanalawo is the Great Island.
At an evening arrival digubuknya a grandmother who require shelter. The next night he again visited by a beautiful girl. Two hearts Gumansalangi persitiwa confusing. While quiet voice that says take this egg dipucuk big tree and not to rupture. Ditebangnyalah tree to get an egg. Eggs were then broken on the way home, from the egg out of a beautiful princess who became known as Konda Wulaeng or Sangiang Ondo Wasa (daughter of barriers night) Khayangan daughter. They married and crowned the Kasili Mědělu and Sangiang Měngkila which means Son of Thunder and Lightning Princess. Named for the princess clothes shining like gold and their meeting marked the roar from the sky. This story is also part of the birth name of Sangihe, and the inspiration for the cake cutting custom Tamo.
(Toponimi, folklore, and historical data from the border region of North Nusa, Sub Department kab.Kepl culture. Sangihe, 2006)
d. Version to the four
Year 1300, Prince Gumansalangi discarded by their parents from Cotabato - Mindanao, far ketengah forest. Gumansalangi discarded because of bad temperament. Amid the forest Gumansalangi realized his mistake, crying and crying and crying sounds until kekayangan. He was then rescued by the king of heaven by sending his youngest daughter called Konda earth to meet Gumansalangi in disguise as a woman who was diseased skin.
Gumansalangi invites her to stay with him. But a few days later the princess disappeared because of back kekhayangan. Twice daughter do it to Gumansalangi. The third time the princess came again in the likeness of the beautiful princess on the orders of his father. Since then they have become husband and wife.
After marriage, on the orders of the king Khayangan they were told to get out of the forest. Their departure was accompanied by the brother of the princess named Bawangung - lare that menjelmah become a dragon. They departed and came to the island ketimur Marulung (island dressing now) In this place they did not go down because there is no sign as submitted by the father mereka.Tanda signs are visible lightning and thundering grabbing each other. Travel on the island continue through Mandalokang (Island taghulandang now) they did not settle there because there is no sign and continue to the island Karangetang there is not too visible marks. The journey continues to the island Tampungang Sahendalumang Lawo headed to the mountain. At the top of the mountain, they found signs of lightning from above and the rumble from below. Under the command of his father, settled them on the spot. Gumansalangi was made king by the title Medellu which means like a rumble, while the Princess was nicknamed Mengkila Konda meaning princess lightning. Kingdom was named royal Bin Lawo.
Throne was handed over to his eldest son Melintangnusa but then Melintangnusa go to Mindanao and Mindanao named daughter married the son of the king's daughter Hiabĕ tugis. Her sister went to the area Bolaang Melikunusa Mongondow and married the daughter named Menong Sangiang Mongondow.
Throne of Melintangnusa Bulegalangi succeeded by his son. (The source of the story of Mr. H. Judah in the book "Manga wĕkeng Origin 'u Sangihe Tau").
See the delivery of public poetry in various sasalamate Tamo derived from the past, gives an overview of the business Gumansalangi solve the problem and finally get what it wants. About the egg on top of Tamo already be decorated major in the past Tamo sbagai symbol of new life in the story Konda Wulaeng mandated. If the meaning of philosophy is a picture Gumansalangi Tamo and Konda wulaeng then most likely, of several versions of stories above the most corresponding Gumansalangi is the third version.
CHAPTER - II
HISTORY OF COMMUNITY Sangihe
A. Meaning of the name Sangihe
Sangihe is an area of islands, formerly a part of the archipelago Sitaro Talaud and Islands in the county system. Currently Talaud Islands and Islands Sitaro (Siau, taghulandang, Biaro) apart, and form a new government district Yuang.
Broad Sangihe is 2263.95 square kilometers (Indonesian national encyclopedias). Situated between 125.10 to 127.12 ⁰ ⁰ east longitude and 2.3 to 5.2 ⁰ ⁰ latitude north latitude. Geographically, the Sangihe bounded, north by philliphina marine waters, south of the strait Talise - Minahasa marine waters, west of the Maluku Sea, east of the Sulawesi sea. Sangihe is a volcanic area because it is located on the mountain path that connects the Pacific sirkum philiphina pathway, Ternate, Tidore northern Sulawesi and South Sulawesi. This is evidenced by the existence of such fire gunug awu mountain on the island of Sangihe, karangetang mountain on the island of Siau, space mountain on the island taghulandang space, underwater volcano mahangetang. Sangihe known as Sanger Sangir or by other tribes in northern Sulawesi.
Most likely use of the name associated with the word Sangihe Sangi 'means sumangi, sasangi, sasangitang, makahunsangi, mahunsangi, masangi, all these words refer to the meaning of tears and sadness. (Sangiress nederlands nederlands Woordenboek meth sangiress registers, Mr.KGFSteller-Ds.WEAebersold). Sangihe words can be sorted from the two words are taken literally as follows: Sangi of Sangiang word meaning Princess Khayangan, IHE or uhe means Gold. (Toponimi, folklore and historical data from the northern border area homeland). Sangi says' can also be found on the island as a place name lapu-lapu philliphiness islands, Africa and India. (Encarta 2007). European sailors called the islands the name Sanguin Sangihe Talaud. Chinese sailors in an expedition led laksaman Ceng Ho Sangihe local call by the name of San Shao. (Iverdixon Tinungki, Tabloid North Zone). In the language Tountembouan, said Sangir means sharpening by using a sharpening stone. A place to hone a sharp object called pasangiran.
Until now the data has not been found exactly since when the word began to be used as a name Sangihe archipelago which includes live Sangihe induced motion. Muhammad Yamin in the Atlas of History is written P. Sangihe as a regional power to sultanate of Ternate in 1677 before submission to the VOC. In other records say that Sangihe is Nusa North. Sangihe and Talaud never be the concentration of forces of Majapahit. The arrival of royal troops in northern Indonesia majapahit Kepl.Talaud especially between the years 1350 until 1365. This period is calculated from the Hayam Wuruk powerful Majapahit empire and achieve greatness. Year 1365 is the year of death of Gajah Mada.
B. Population At - At
Humans first Sangihe based on legends and oral stories, consisting of four types, namely:
Human Apapuhang. Apapuhang is kind of the first human in Sangihe legend that ever lived on the island of Sangihe. They live dicabang tree. Apapuhang human dispersal in Utaurano between Mangehesê and Bowongkalaeng. Disebuah valley now known by the name Balang apapuhang, North Tabukan district. Apapuhang physical form, his body a short, stunted. Tribes have Apapuhang kingdom under the earth. To be able to enter the kingdom Apapuhang must pass through the gate which is right behind the waterfall in Kampung Lenganeng Apapuhang (Interview with Mr. Radangkilat yr 1994) All objects in the kingdom Apapuhang made of gold. Human Stem Tampilê, Living diakar large trees uprooted. Distribution of the population is unknown.
Human Pêmpanggo (tall man) has no fixed abode. Distribution of the population is unknown.
Human Angsuang. Angsuang sangihe.Cerita is a giant in the language of man is a legend in the villages at the foot of Mount Awu. Angsuang is a character in the legend of Mount Awu, which tells the occurrence of volcanic eruptions.
C. The ancestors of the islanders Sangihe
Dr. Peter Beltwood from the Australian National University Department of Prae-history museum in collaboration with the office of education and culture represented by Drs. I. Made Sutayasa in June and July 1974 has been conducted excavations dikepulauan Sangihe and Talaud. From the results of excavations found ancient animal tusks and ivory, patterned pottery, flakes, hominid skeleton (in the cave Bowoleba Manalu). This finding suggests that there is life on Sangihe and Talaud since the period of 5000 years ago. (Toponimi, folklore and historical data from the northern border area homeland)
National archaeological team through the halls of archaeological Manado in archaeological research report, "the study settlements and livelihoods of people living past in Sangihe Talaud Sulawesi and north" to get the results that have long there is life on the islands Sangihe and Talaud.
Robert C. Suggs in the book "Island Civilization of Polynesia", (John Secret "Rediscovery Tagaroa", 1975) reveals that from ± 2000 to 1700 BC occurred military political pressure from China and Mongolia northern part of mainland Asia are urging residents in the valley of Mekhong in the area Yunnan (Viet Nam) to move. Residents who live in the valley of Mekhong undergo three kinds of situations, namely: Those who are weak and submissive, mastered and assimilated under civilization, culture and power of China - Mongolia.Mereka weak but holding resistance, destroyed until keakar-roots, so it does not berbekas.Mereka the would not submit forced to leave their homelands and migrate out. Ketepi the South China Sea to the Philliphina, archipelago, through Micronesia and Melanesia to the islands of Hawaii, Easter Island, in Polynesia and New Zealand there is also a way to Madagascar, East Africa.
Periodization dispersion of the population in China due to the above problems can be grouped as follows;
1. Continental riverine Migrations, namely the spread in the area of mainland Asia disektar river mekhong
2. Coastal maritime Migrations, namely the spread in the coastal areas vietnam or china southern waterfront.
3. Insular Maritime migration, namely the spread between islands in the archipelago region of Taiwan, Japan, Philliphines, Indonesia.
4. Insular oceanic maritime Migrations, namely: the spread between islands while the ocean to the archipelago and Madagascar.
Progenitor migration archipelago consists of two stages, namely:
The first migration years 1700 - 1500 BC called the proto-Malay. Stone Migration This brings a new culture / neolitikhum based in Bascon hoabin Indo china. (Culture hatchet shaped and square). Which includes proto-Malay descendants are: Toraja and Dayak tribes. Migration both years 700-300 BC Deutro called Malay culture that brought the metal. Is centered on the Dong Son culture. Which includes descendants of Malay deutro are Javanese and Bugis.
Population Sangihe and Talaud including Polynesian Malay race. Origin of their migration from Northern Mindanao and the other came from Ternate. Sangihe Talaud tribes and tribal nations including Polynesia and most of the tribes included in the Austronesian (Prof. JC Van Erde, in a note about the culture Sangihe-Talaud, Gideon Makamea, 2008).
Sangihe population, can not be determined with certainty its origin. It is estimated that they came from North Sulawesi Philliphina and this is based off of the existing language in Sangihe and Talaud, Philliphina and Minahasa have much in common. (Breuwer 1918; 771, in a note about the culture Sangihe-Talaud, Gideon Makamea, 2008) Population Sangihe himself thought that their ancestors came from the north.
To find out who the ancestors of settlers and indigenous ancestors who can be seen through some of the world race that will show the existence of tribal ancestors sangihe.Ras consisted of Caucasian, Nordic (northern Europe / Germany), Alpin (mostly Europeans), Mediterranean ( Middle East / Arab), Indic (Indian). Mongoloid race consists of, Asiatic Mongoloid (China, Japan, Korea), Malayan mongoloid (Malay), the American Mongoloid (Indians). Consists of the Negroid race, African Negroid (African Negro), Negrito (Native Philiphina). Special Race; Australoid / native of Australia, Polynesia / Pacific nations, Melanesian / Papuan Pacific, Micronesian / Pacific, Ainu / Japanese natives, Dravidian / native of India, Bushman / southern Africa.
Malay race consisted of four tribes, namely: Malaysia, Indonesia, People negrito, and Papua (Encarta 2005). It can be concluded that the native population in terms of ethnic Sangihe, and legend, not the people of Indonesia but is part of the negrito tribes. Physical character of Negrito race are: the eyes are not slanted, dark black skin color, posture average height of 130 cm.
Before the large-scale migration from mainland china, existing residents in the archipelago, namely: Wedoid and Negrito. The remains of the tribe wedoid is: Sakai tribe in Siak, tribal stronghold in jambi, tribal Lubu in Palembang. The remains of an extinct tribe negrito. Negroid race including race africa sub negroid (African Negro) and native negrito Philliphina. Negrito is the name given by Europeans to distinguish the African Negro.
Physical character of the native population in terms Sangihe consists of;
1. Same with the migration of population from the spread of china, a native of Sangihe including the Ras proto-Malayan Malay keturunann Mongoloid or south path.
2. Population Sangihe viewed from the side of the legend means the first inhabitants came from philipine Sangihe. The natives philipine like Aeta tribe, agta included in a special race world which is Ras Negrito.
Based on oral stories that have been handed down terwaris that the ancestors of the Sangihe is Gumansalangi. Gumansalangi awarded Kasili Medellu (prince thunder) and hold up Konda Konda Sangiang Mengkila or wulaeng which means daughter of light.
Cultural heritage PRE HISTORY
Culture is a complication (fabric) in a whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, religion, laws, customs, and other realities and the habits that made human beings as members of society. Culture is one of the characteristics that distinguish between people with binatang.Kebudayaan Sangihe has all the elements - elements of culture that exists.
As from mithology tagharoa, then Sangihe ancient culture began in 3000 BC and ends after the metal saman (archipelago). Mithologi tagharoa is mithology Pacific. Some relics of the Saman Saman ancient stone can still be seen in kepl, Sangihe.
A typology of historic relics in Sangihe, proves that these objects are derived from ancient saman, although to date this has not been known clearly about the function and the age of the object. (Typology is a way to determine the age of cultural property based on its shape. The more simple the older age of cultural objects)
Gong in Sangihe is Nanaungan. Serves as the musical accompaniment of religious ceremonies saman metal.
CHAPTER - IV
RELIGIOUS LIFE AND
Sangihe RATE TRUST
Religious life is basically a belief in the belief in supernatural powers, extraordinary or supernatural influence on the lives of individuals and society, even against all natural phenomena. Believing in something as a holy or sacred is the hallmark of religious life. (Busstanudin Agus, Religion in human life, 50.2005).
Human religion for several reasons, namely: Not able mengatasai natural disasters, not able to conserve resources and harmony of nature, not able to regulate human action in order to live peacefully with each other in society. (Evans-Pritchard, in Busstanudin Agus, Religion in human life, 50.2005)
Confidence is the belief system held by a person or society and become the basis of orientation and behavior. Elements that are usually contained in the trust are: myth, divinity, man, the universe, prayer, mysticism, magic and life goals. (DJ Walandungo, Thesis, Old Islamic stuck and Moaning, 2002).
A. Period Sundeng
Long before the formation of the first empire, the tribe has embraced Sangihe belief system. Sangihe tribal beliefs held in the past can not be ascertained as to what. D. Brillman in his book De Velden Onze zending zending Sangi-en op de Talaud - eilanden explained that until the century - 16 there is a belief system called "Where the trust". Where is the power that stands out, which deviates from the usual power, this power comes a supernatural everywhere (sakti). Public opinion, said that tribal trust Sangihe classified as animism. Animism is a belief to know the existence of spirits and the spirits that inhabit the entire universe. In addition to the above opinion, rates Sangihe past also embracing the cult of fetishes or objects of natural or man-made filled with supernatural powers, if true fetishes, is also homage to the ancient religion Sangihe dynamism. (Dr. Aaron Hadiwijono, Religion proletarian tribe in Indonesia, 2006)
Some opinions about trust Sangihe can be seen through the religious activities of the past. Community Sangihe know some religious rites such as ritual měsundeng. Sundeng not just a religious ritual but as a community in which there is a life of culture and social system that has a relationship with a force that is considered more powerful than the community.
This community is set up a religious leader called Ampuang. Ampuang acts as the highest dignitaries in the community. In carrying out activities assisted by the tatanging ampuang and the bihing. Determination of the position in the community sundeng done through the process of discipleship or bawihingang.
The main activity is the ritual měsundeng menalě or present offerings. At the beginning of the offerings made in the form of human sacrifice sacrifice to the ruler of nature. Ritual sundeng not implemented in each village but implemented in a central place of worship called penanaruang.Terdapat rituals in manganitu sundeng ie, pananaru, mahumu island and a few other places. Largest worship center located in the village district Pananaru Tamako. Sundeng rituals attended by the smallest sundeng community mission of each village. Not all communities have ampuang or tatanging sundeng, mostly from small communities only have a bihing.
Broadly speaking, the procedure of implementation of activities menalě starts from the gathering of community members sundeng through the mission. Sit in a circle based on the position and role in worship activities. Prepare a person to be sacrificed. Ask for directions from the ruler of nature. Once approved ditikamlah one person that has been prepared with a tool called recalled. Believed to be the soul of the victim to another place. Migration of souls through the procession escorted the victim culture such as dance Lide ', sounds of musical instruments oil' accompanied tagonggong and nanaungang. After all the activity is finished, all participants ate together.
Sundeng community believes in the power that exceeds their strength, for that they sacrifice as a form of the relationship between humans and the natural ruler. Power that exceeds human strength in the community sundeng form invisible force or spirit. Strength consists of three elements that distinguished the spirit of the people who worship the Ghenggonalangi, Aditinggi and Mawendo. Ghenggonalangi is domiciled sky-high power that controls all the earth. Aditinggi is the highest on land-based force, which is worshiped by the people - people in the hills. Mawendo is a sea-based force that is worshiped by the people at sea and coastal area.
At sundeng rituals still being run in a community sundeng then comes a ritual called mědaroro. The core of this ritual is to seek and find clues from the ancestral spirits of the dead. This ritual is interpreted by D. Brillman in the book (good news from the lips of the Pacific, translation) as a religious person Sangihe. Medaroro ritual still performed in pananaru until the year 1976 (an interview with the old village pananaru, year 2007), in Manganitu until the 1960s (interview with cpc. Crisp, father of Ulis).
The concept and procedure of the ritual was adapted from the ritual medaroro sundeng including its location. Future locations of medaroro already implemented in the villages in a small community that was once a small community sundeng. What distinguishes between sundeng with medaroro is the offering of human victims are no longer using but using pigs. (Interview with the old village, Nahepese, Bengka, Karatung, Kauhis, 2001 to 2007). Digantinnya human sacrifice with pork, beginning at the time of entry of the euro in Sangihe. At the end of the offerings in ritual offerings offerings medaroro replaced with yellow rice with side dishes. (Interview with cpc. Makamea G., 2007). Meaning the power that is worshiped in rituals medaroro no longer to Ghenggonalangi, aditinggi and mawendo but to Himukudě. In addition sundeng rituals and other rituals medaroro there has ever done in the past Sangihe society as ritual menahulending banua, menondo sakaeng, mendangeng sake, melanise tembonang, Menaka stone, and others.
Ritual stone Menaka (closing the grave with stones) is an ancient ritual associated with the event of death, the ritual was done some time after the burial of corpses. Based on these findings, the stone covering the tomb was taken from so far away from the place of burial because of the location of the old cemetery is located on top bukit.Dilihat of building form, can be identified that are using the cap stone tombs, made on a large stone saman.
Close this tomb stones resemble a stone dolmen.Ukuran ranging from 50 x 50 cm to 100 x 250 cm with a thickness of 5-25 cm. Heavy stone berfariasi from 50 kg to 700 kg. At the bottom there are 4 to 5 pole stones 40 cm from the top tanah.Ritual Menaka stone shows the social status of society. Which has a stone grave cover most of it comes from the top cover while the graves that have a small stone from the bawah.Berdasarkan narrative of village elders and lapango pananaru, to lift the large stone needs to hire as many as 50 to 100 people who made the relay. on rock, sat a leader who gives perintah.Setibanya in the cemetery there is an indigenous elders who are playing music Tagonggong, at the time of the closing stone tomb began lifted up the hill, frequent fights. After the procession Menaka stone finish, the party was held in the form meberi eat all workers. Sangihe old burial site that has the same construction, using the cover there is a large rock on the beach pananualeng, pananaru, pangalemang, bawuniang lapango.
Conception of the past about the cultural diversity brought so much to see a change with the advent of Tulude ceremony. The ceremony is held once a year sabagai grateful for the existence Ditahun effort that has been passed and refused reinforcements in the new year. At this ceremony shown all forms of culture results Sangihe. Tulude is the largest ceremonial.
The main philosophy of tulude lies in Tamo, where all walks of life can be present without having been invited. In this activity seems the value of togetherness between the government and society, between societies with one another by not distinguishing the status and position in society.
B. Sign in and outside of religious development in Sangihe.
a. Religion of Islam
Islam is a religion that goes beyond the first and developing dikepulauan Sangihe. Before the religion of Islam spread more widely disangihe, was born of a community of religious life of Islam called Islam resembles an old or elderly. Religious activities of this community still believe in and follow the customs of Islam followers of the Koran, such as fasting, to pray, celebrate a few days of Islam based on Islamic religious quran. The religious community has no holy book of Islam as the religion of the Koran. They believe that the old teachings of Islam first spread by someone who later referred to as Mawu Masade. (Explanation of some old Muslims 2003). One of the teachings of their ancestors who seeth fit at guard is: people do not need a high school, because if the high school level can contaminate their faith in God the Almighty (interview with cpc. Manto Kirimang, 2007)
Masade is a 7-year-old boy found in the kingdom during the reign of King Tabukan Dalero. At that time the war between the kingdoms and empires of Islam Lumaugě Tabukan. The cause of war is not an issue of religion but vengeance upon the sultan of ternate sibori who carried off the princess Dalero Maimuna. (Sultan sibori frequent visits to the royal Lumauge). In times of war, masade hide-covered ground in the boat. He was found and raised by Manakabe. Masade study Islam in Ternate and Mindanao and then pass it to the Sangihe. Masade died and was buried in Tubis, Philliphina, some time after his trip to Ternate, Mongondow, and Mecca.
Masade teachings continued by his disciple named Penanging. Penanging make disciples for three people namely Makung, Hadung and Biangkati. The doctrine of three students penanging is what gave birth to three streams of Islamic teachings in the Old. Places of worship religious community was named after the mosque, a tool used to call people to worship using the bell. Prayers held every Friday. Their main doctrine derived from the priest. It is possible the birth of the Islamic religious community of parents is the failure of Islamic da'wah Syi, ah.
While the old religion of Islam is being subjected to pressure from various parties, especially the pressure from his own country, came a savior of the Reverend Don Javirius Walandungo. Through a thesis with the title "Old Islamic stuck and miserable" has opened the eyes of the government to rescue religion from the pressure of his brothers.
To date there is no evidence to confirm the entry of a neighbor when Islamic teachings first in Sangihe. In general, the teachings of Islam into Indonesia by several experts from India, Coromandel, Arabia, Egypt, China and Persia. It is estimated that the teaching that goes into Sangihe through philliphina and ternate.
Islamic teaching in and developing disangihe viewed from two possibilities.
First, go through Philliphina early in 1400 by merchants and sailors passing through the china sea shipping lane. Distribution is done through a voyage of Islam carried out also by sailors china, Cheng Ho during his visit on the island of Sulu. The entry of Islamic teachings also influenced by the relationship philliphina trade conducted by Chinese Muslims and the Muslim Moro, Mindanao.
Second, the inclusion of Islamic teachings of Ternate is estimated in the 14th century, because at that time Islam had spread throughout ternate. Ternate Sultan is right - really been embraced Islam was the Sultan Zainal Abidin (ruled as emperor from 1486 to 1500 yr), Zainal Abidin Islamic learning on Sunan Giri. In the reign of Sultan son of Sultan Hairun Baabullah (1570-1583) ternate imperial greatness. Territory up to the Philliphina. The first person who spread the religion of Islam Quran is Imam Penanging disangihe are then considered by adherents of Islam as a disciple of Masade old (interview with the father of Gabriel, head of MI Petta)
Sangihe According to oral tradition, the religion of Islam was first introduced in Tabukan by an Arab man named Maulana Moe'min Syarief in the 15th century and gained influence on the king's first royal Lumauge. (Suwondo, 1978 in DJWalandungo, old Islamic stuck and miserable). Lumauge kingdom centered on a hill behind moronge. This kingdom is the only Islamic empire in Sangihe, which is part of the royal power Tabukan.
In the 19th century came a priest from Pontianak who teaches Islamic teachings. Priest nicknamed "Priest Pontiana". After the priest "pontiana" repatriated by the Royal Tabukan to pontianak, appears again a teacher of Islamic religion Tabukan previously named Walanda Tamieng never sit under. Walanda deepen the Islamic sciences in Mongondow, after returning to Sangihe he opened the recitation in Tabukan. Mid-19th century, the king Kumuku (Hendrik David Paparang) study Islam in Ternate. Back in Sangihe, she brings a child named Moedin Baud. (Report records the visit of Governor-general in the kingdom Tabukan, 1927)
In the reign of king Presidentsi Siri Darea Cornelis 1886, the religion of Islam in the empire Tabukan under pressure. Hadiman Makaminan sea captain and Maloehenggehe Paparang convicted studied the teachings of Islam to Hussein (Gorontalo people). People who still embraced Islam in Tabukan evacuated to the Tahuna and form a new community village of Tidore Islam. Displacement Abdoel led by Latif. In bowondego / lenganeng they cried and said a prayer O Lord God of rahman, PadaMulah shelter, be with blessings, courageous faith, Keep your servant diperasingan. Among the refugees lies the a sage named Ontameng Kakomba who later became a teacher of Islam in Tahuna.
In the reign of the king's knowledge, Dumalang, Islam has come under pressure. 15 people were exiled outside Islam advocates Sulawesi.Atas help Controleur Hoeke few years later built a mosque in Sawang. Days of the reign of King D. Sarapil 1898 Muslims in the disposal of Tahuna, Tabukan allowed to go and build a mosque in Moronge and Maps.
In 1915 came an Ambonese named Marasa Iron teach witchcraft masked Islamic religion. In 1919 Islamic Sarikat formed in Tabukan, this organization disbanded in 1921. Due to misunderstanding, the leader of the Islamic Sarikat JG Janis was sentenced, to death and buried in Surabaya. In the reign of king W.A. Sarapil 1925, religious life in the kingdom Tabukan be good. (Excerpted by Bombaran Makaminan the report notes the visit of Governor-general in the kingdom Tabukan, 1927)
The only Islamic empire in Sangihe is based in the Kingdom Lumauge Moronge, under the rule of the Kingdom Tabukan. Another royal disangihe who got a touch of Islam is the kingdom Kendahe. The king's first royal kendahe Sultan Ahmad is the son of philiphina, reigned years 1600 to 1640. King Tabukan the religion of Islam is king Gadma. "Representative government made it clear to the king Gadma spain in manila that they are willing to abandon the religion of Islam and Christian religion" (Meersman 1967 in DJWalandungo, old Islamic stuck and miserable).
C. Christian Religion.
The first Portuguese Catholic Mission arrived in Maluku are some Franciscan monks who landed in Ternate in 1522, then developed rapidly until the year 1570, in Ambon lease, Bacan, Halmahera - Morotai, ternate-Tidore, Banggai, Manado and Sangihe. This is done to the efforts of Jesuit missionaries, Francis Xavier since 1546 for 15 months of evangelism. After the Roman Catholic Mission in 1570 began deteriorating as a result of, murdered Sultan Hairun by the Portuguese.
In 1563, Diego de Magelhaes priest baptize "Manado king" and the king Siau Possuma. Years. 1566 Siau king who had just returned from the evacuation of Ternate was accompanied by a missionary Fr Mascarenhas. End of the month of September 1568 the king asked clergy in Siau Kolongan to accept a Christian. Date. October 5, 1568, Fr Mascarenhas arrived on the island of Sangihe, baptize and marry later taught several noblemen in the kingdom kolongan. In 1563 was the beginning touches on Siau Catholic.
Protestant developments on the island can Sangihe periodisasikan based on the book we zending Territories, Zending dikepulauan Sangi and Talaud, as follows:
1. Early Protestant (the VOC)
The spread of Calvinist Protestants began in Spain
withdraw from Sangihe, after the VOC seized Tahuna
in 1666. First pastor is Ds. Pregrinus
(1677) and Ds. Cornelis de Leeuw, as a pastor
The first preaching in the language Sangihe (1680
The spread of Protestant Christianity initially performed by priests VOC employees. In 1675 the Reverend J. Montanus found that the churches in Manado is very weak. In 1677 the Reverend Zacharias VOC set cacheing in Manado. Until the year 1700 not much more pastors who want to come to Indonesia. Christianity in the VOC occurs not because of faith but because of political pressure. (Prof.Dr.IHEnklaar.Sejarah church concise, 81.1966)
Year 1674-1675 is the period beginning on the island of Sangihe Protestant touch. At that time Reverend Dionysius and the Reverend Francis Huysman Ishacus visit to the island of Sangihe, then sick, and died and was buried on the beach, road to angges. Years. 1676 Sangihe visited by the Reverend. Montanus and the Reverend J. Peregrinus. Year 1770 - 1853 Reverend Joseph Thurs Assignment in Maluku and Maluku dubbed Apostles, pastors are often made visits to Sangihe. Last pastor who visited the island during the VOC Sangihe is Reverend JR Adams in 1789. December 31, 1799 the VOC was dissolved, since the dissolution of VOCs no longer a spiritual ministry
2. NZG period (Nederlandsch Zendeling Genootschap) Evangelism of the United Netherlands
Van der Kamp founded NZG Year 1797. In 1817 the Reverend Joseph visited Minahasa Thurs. Resilience 1819 visit to Minahasa.Pendeta Josep Thurs and Ds. Resilience find Christians no longer care, and they reported the situation at the NZG in the Netherlands. In 1822 on the above report the NZG sent two Swiss nationals, L. Lamers at Kema (died 1824 at Kema) W. Muller in Manado (died 1827 in Manado) They died of disease Typus.Dalam service, they are experiencing a lot of obstacles and challenges derived primarily from the 1827 service Eropa.Tahun manado replaced by Ds. G. J. Helendoorn. 4 years later in 1831 sent another 2 man servant, namely: Johann Friedrich Johann Riedel and GottliebSchwars.
1855, NZG sent S.D. van der Velde van Capellen of Minahasa to Sangihe orang.Ketika 5033 and baptized the SD van der Velde van Capellen was on duty at Tareran, Minahasa. Top kujungan the state dilaporkanlah Sangihe abandoned Christian church to the NZG. By the Minister of Colonies, given an answer that will be sent four people Zendeling-zendeling werklieden or handyman. S.D. van der Velde van Capellen returned to duty in the Minahasa until the end of life and was buried in lansot tareran 1856.
3. Period Zendeling - werklieden (zendeling handyman or messenger tukangdalam association "Reverend handyman)
The Commission began its work in handyman Zendeling
Amsterdam in 1851 and sent his gospel workers in
Indonesian. The Commission has sent nine people to the
Sangihe and Talaud islands to do evangelism.
This evangelistic effort carried out over some background
- Approximately 200 years of neglected maintenance of the gospel in Sangihe.
- Rev. report. S.D. Van Der Velde van Capellen in 1855 about the fall in the faith of the church in Sangihe.
Due to shortage of staff in the Netherlands, the Commission zendeling builders take some envoys from Germany. Those who were sent are: WLM Carl Schroder, ETSteller, F. Kelling and A. Grohe. Kelling and Grohe to the island of Siau they arrived at Taghulandang July 15, 1875. Steller and Schroder arrives at Manganitu June 25, 1857. Dispatch zendeling handyman ended in 1858.
4. Period Sangihe and Talaud Committee (established in 1887)
At this time responsibility for the maintenance of faith in the island of Sangihe and Talaud handled by the Committee Sangihe and Talaud. This Committee was established in the Netherlands in cooperation with several agencies of evangelism. The Committee is only responsible way to finance missionaries arrived in Batavia, after it handed over to the Dutch Government through evangelistic agency in Manado. Missionaries who came in Sangihe and Talaud taken from several bodies of evangelism.
The new missionaries arrived in Sangihe 1888. Those who were sent were: M. Kelling, T. W. Vonk, J. C G. Ottow. 1891, Siau received the new gospel workers namely: AJ Swanborn, at the same time G.F. Schroder moved from the island of Sangihe Talaud, and Mr.KGF Steller arrived at Manganitu 31 May 1899. On July 1, 1904 in the gospel ministry handed back to the committee for the maintenance of the spiritual needs of indigenous Protestant Christian congregations. By mid 1900, the Christian church in Sangihe states stand alone, no longer bound by the state church.
Heritage buildings in Sangihe evangelism.
MUSIC AND DANCE ARTS Sangihe
Creation of dance was born as part of ritual or ceremonial purposes and activities of socio - cultural. In order life like that feeling and spirit of togetherness becomes a central point. (I Wayan Dibia, et al. Communal Dance, 2006)
Dance developed in cooperation and stimulation gained from music, fine arts, literary and drama. Creation of an existing dance traditions along with the pace of history. Khazana Each dance is experiencing change and development. Each other can happen to cross each other or influence each other culture. (Sumaryono Suanda Endo, Dance Spectacle, 2006)
In Sangihe, dance is part of community life, whether it be for ritual purposes or performances. In expressing dance, music becomes part of it. Every form of dance to change from time to time based on its development.
There are several native dances Sangihe that still exist and are being developed that is, dance gunde, madunde somebody dance, dance alabadiri, dance dangsang sahabe, bengko dance, dance Salo, upase dance, dance and dance AMPA wayer Tambor.
Substance (content) basic dance, is the motion of the body, because it is the embodiment of the expression of dance personally. Dance was born of a culture system prevailing in the area of each is a form of communication between people who were born of the order of life. (I wayan dibia, communal cs.Tari, 2006).
Dance was performed at various events, such as those relating to the ceremony (ritual) and a party to celebrate the events penting.Tari has played an important role in the social system since the days of pre-history (Sumaryono, Endo Suanda, dance spectacle, 2006)
A. MUSIC AND DANCE LiDE.
Research on this music has been performed by many experts and local observers and some experts ethnomusicologist from Indonesia and abroad. Mengolį is an activity play a musical instrument called Lide. The background of this music game is as a media liaison man and the ruler of nature. Besides playing music, there is one woman who sang with the content of poetry rhyme (in a language called papantung Sangihe, medenden). Lide music consists of a collection of traditional musical instruments played Sangihe jointly by sundeng faiths. This music is already there coincided with the first kingdom in Sangihe in 1500 - an. Art was born sabagai mêsundeng part of the ritual.
1. This type of musical instrument Lide
Lide music consists of several types of musical instruments in melodic music has elements of 5 pieces of tone that is: do, re, mi, fa, sol.
a. Tuned instrument or tool that led melody on the song.
• Arababu and bow equipment.
• Bansi, tuned instrument
b. Rhythmic instrument.
2. Types of songs on the music Lide.
Lide music consists of eight types of ancient rhythm of the song. This type of ancient rhythm of the song that still exist between the 8 songs from ancient are:
1. Lide Lagung
2. Lagung laogho u Lendu
3. Lagung elehu ake
4. Sangi Lagung u Wuala
The songs are already extinct include Ondolu Wango.
It is delivered by resource persons, the player and instrument maker named Umbure Kalenggihang Manumpitaeng kampong. According to the father Malomboris (Lide music observer of village Manumpitaeng) who have been declared extinct songs can still be played by Mr. Umbure but not yet taught. This may be related to the system of inheritance at Sundeng Religion. According to the father Malomboris, cultural observer of Manumpitaeng Lide said that in addition to songs, there are also dance on sundeng rituals that have been declared extinct, was named Dance Dance Lide.
Type of rhythm tracks, the development of ancient tracks include:
1. Lagung bowong wild
2. Lagung propeller
3. Lagung sahola
Each type of song has a different background creation. What was unique musical rhythms Lide namely: the rhythm of music Lide was derived from generation to generation without change significantly. Lide musical differences found only in places where musikc was developed. Lide musical rhythm tracks in the area around the island Mahumu only use 3 rhythm of the song while in other areas using 4 rhythm of the song. Lide music is a blend of several types of musical instruments such as: Oil, Bansi, Arababu, salude and Sasesaheng are played simultaneously into an ensemble. The game music is often also in the mix with vocals / human voice. Song lyric is sung mostly themed memiluhkan demand, resulting from prolonged suffering. In the development salanjutnya Music Lide start combined with a gong or in a language called Nanaungang Sangihe. Usefulness gong is controlling the tempo of the song.
3. Philosophy and meaning of ancient songs on the music Lide.
Of the four types of songs that are, essentially has the feel of pain. Lide is the core of the song or songs that can accompany the opening song of worship that quickly came to the ruler of nature in the form permohonan.Lagu Elehu ake: explores the form and request an application such as water mengalir.Lagu Sangi U Wuala: Wuala is the meaning of Sangi u Crocodile Tears . In the past people believed in Upung Sangihe (ancestors) Human and Upung (ancestors) Crocodiles. Upung crocodile walking on two legs using a red headband. Upung crocodile has a very powerful force, so what he is asking to be given. If demand is not met then there will be victims of a swallow. Sangi song u Wuala is about the threat to human life which is described as a way Crocodile. The threat was already going to take people in distress who berkepanjangan.Lagu Laogho u Lendu, Lendu songs taken from the name of one bird species that live in Sangihe. This bird is the only bird in the cultural life Sangihe regarded as an extension of the natural duty of the ruler. Task bird Lendu ating the main thing is the sign of the death of kin. In addition there are also kaliyaow Lendu who meberi sign of the presence of close relatives from far away places.
4. One form of songs on the music Lide
Composition Lagung Lide
5. Dance to the accompaniment of music Lide.
Lide dance as part of the ritual mêsundeng. Is an ancient dance that has been extinct. This dance is performed in stages menalê, (menalê is feeding, the interview: G. Makamea, 2008) carried out to bring the spirit of a young woman who sacrificed to the creator).
Lide dance floor patterns
Lide dance danced by women, dancers surround the victim in a group dance, and dance according to the movement of each of the imaginative and spontaneous. Basic movements of dance, shake hands and feet disentak-jerk to the ground while surrounding the victims. The basis of the Lide dance is a dance single bersama.Dilihat danced the dance of the elements of this dance is classified as a communal dance. Communal dance is a dance performance event involving a large community. Dance contains the principle of communal spirit of togetherness, a sense of brotherhood or solidarity towards a common interest.
Gradually the concept of culture is changing. After the introduction of Islam and Christianity in kepl. Sangihe the human sacrifice of the animals was replaced with a pig. A pig with the requirements of fattening pigs big black whole of unjung kuku.Pengorbanan head to tip of the animals and then replaced again with a diamond type bebatung Sajen goat, one of 16 different types of diamond diamond Sangihe. (Interview: Makamea 2006) Ketupat then replaced again with yellow rice served on a large plate, called trays. Offender population Lide original music and medenden only one person.
B. ART MĔBAWALASĔ
Mĕtaggongong identical to mĕbawalasĕ sambo.
Musical instruments used in the music game "mĕtagonggong" is a drum.
In the past, game music tagonggong serve as a companion activity "me'sambo" or mĕbawalasĕ sambo, gunde and ceremonial dance. Import of cultural influences and cultures have influenced each other is part of the long journey kantari mebawalase culture.
Of oral stories and some folklore about Makaampo Sangihe, gives an overview of proficiency ancestors in poetry and berpantun Sangihe. Berpantun is a common part of the culture of the archipelago that is to say poetry - poetry in the form of conversations that have meaning and must be returned as requested earlier poems. Pantun done unrequited-replies between two people or two groups.
Pantun, incantations, tinggung-tinggung is the oldest in the oral literary Sangihe taught from generation to generation. Charm content changes since the advent of Islam dikepulauan Sangihe. Pantun not change the content but rather to change the way the presentation. Tinggung-tinggung or puzzle the first time got a response of society in the royal palace Tabukan. Later poems unrequited activities appear in a different form that is served to the accompaniment of music tagonggong. Poetry and dilantukan "pitched" penthatonik and returned by someone else. While everyone should sing sambo beat in rhythm tagonggong desired.
There are three important elements in sambo mĕbawalasĕ namely: mĕtagonggong, mĕsambo, mĕbawalasĕ. The essence of this art is mĕbawalasĕ. Each opponent sambo should be able to answer or reply disambokan poem. If not then it will be lost. Based on the story of the village dagho, kalamadagho and sambo pananaru that island on the beach due to the game was thrown kalamadago tagonggong and sasambo a magic. Until recently, the island is called the island of sambo. In the past, every sambo who chanted magic power that can kill orang.Bentuk sambo song consists of: lagung Balang, lagung Sonda, lagung sasahola, lagung duruhang, and lagung bawine.
After the entry of European nations, a new art form that gave birth mĕbawalasĕ each song or mĕbawalasĕ kantari reciprocated. The songs are sung a touch of European diatonic tones do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si.
At first, art mĕbawalasĕ kantari implemented on a collection of people in the crowd as the show hayat events, weddings and deaths. Kantari mĕbawalasĕ process initially is someone stood up to sing, followed by those in attendance said, pointing one by one person who was present when the song stops, by itself the Designated simultaneously with the end of the song should stand to replace people who were standing. Art is then called a "point".
Art mĕbawalasĕ kantari see the intersection since the entry of the gospel in the land of Sangihe. At the time of birth of the church choir called Zangvereeninging taken from the word zang (dutch language) which means singing. In manganitu choir has grown since the late 1800s as sampregening. Ms. beginning in 1900. C.W.S. Steller offer to become coach sampregening Paghulu Christian church.
Gradually this European art inculturated with art "point". Then came the arts masamper which is a cross between a church choir and traditional arts. Pengistilahan sampri as the choir is still used until the 1960's. Along with that was the term that replaces the term samperě nominated on kantari mebawalasě activities.
Traditional art is an art culture that has long been for generations, have lived and evolved in a particular area (in MMBawelle Okka Yati A., Effect of Participation Sponsor of the art development in the district Malalayang masamper Manado municipality, Thesis, 1998)
Masamper originally derived from the dutch language Zang sfeer which means singing along in a certain atmosphere. Sangihe community called Samper and affixes influenced "me" becomes mesamper. (Cultural Park, formula results masamper gatherings, 15 0ktober 1992 in MMBawelle, Effect of Participation Sponsor of arts development in the district Malalayang masamper Manado municipality, Thesis, 1998)
Masamper main elements are: elements of vocal music, motion elements, elements mebawalase or unrequited revenge. Using the diatonic tones and sung as a choir / chorus. (MMBawelle, Effect of Participation Sponsor of arts development in the district Malalayang masamper Manado municipality, Thesis, 1998)
In Indonesia there are only two forms of the traditional choral choirs and traditional Batak masamper of Sangihe. Masamper formed from several Babakan based on the type of songs are sung.
1. Track meeting or encounter.
In this type of songs can only be sung theme songs hayat encounter in an event such as marriage and death. This type of song is the theme song change by the general meeting.
2. Hymns / praise
In this type of songs can be sung only spiritually-themed songs. Including religious activities and religious Sangihe Christian religion.
3. Heroic theme songs
In this type of songs can only be sung the theme song Sangihe epic hero. But then along with the development of the emerging themes of national heroism.
4. Literary-themed songs Sangihe.
In this type can only be sung songs that are meaningful and of high literary value, may not use the vocabulary of everyday language Sangihe.
5. Love song
In this type of song the theme of love and affection of parents to children, children to parents, to others, to friends and companions, to adults who will and mutual love (courtship), problems of young people in love, domestic problems.
6. Farewell song
This is the scene of the most recent Babakan mêsamperê where the event was marked by selesai.Berakhirnya mêsamperê no longer able to reply to the group that last song.
In the past mêsamperê activities can be held for 24 to 48 hours. This could happen if the group has participated in many repertory mêsamperê songs. The interesting thing in the past, because it ran out of songs a pangataseng (mêsamperê leader) can create a song at mêsamperê activity while it lasted.
Although the songs - songs masamper much use of songs - songs and psalms tahlil, but Ditahun 1800, culture is a culture common masamper Sangihe. This is evidenced by the many Muslims who participated in the activities of "point". They know a lot of Christian songs. (Explanation of cpc. Luqman Makapuas and some old villages in North Tabukan) Since the advent of the culture masamper sampregening more identical with Christian.
In the 1980s, began masamper competed in various activities. Ahead of the 1990's original values masamper changed with the advent of modern masamper groups whose purpose is to lead to commercial activities .. Positive values of the emergence of commercial masamper group is increasingly widespread recognition of cultural Sangihe throughout Indonesia.
In addition to several art music that has been described, the community Sangihe also know some other music games such as: music tunta, bamboo music exclusively, puhe music and orchestral music. Orchestral music is a form of ensemble music that is inherited from the days of Spain.
C. DANCE Sangihe
Sangihe dance community has known since prehistoric times. Beginning with the birth of dance in ceremonial sundeng Lide. Dance Lide later changed its character into mêsalai (smoked in Sangihe means dancing). Sangihe conceptual dance was originally performed in sundeng ceremony that is part of the wholeness teatrical ceremony where there are different kinds of art are displayed and everyone else is doing based on their respective roles. Mêsalai entering a new form, namely: spontaneous staging of events in the crowd. Mêsalai stemming from Lide dance danced by a group of people with a single role with spontaneous movements and expressions, without previously formed. The main concept of this dance is performed by the free movement of men and women. This dance is experiencing changes until a dance Gunde.
Based on the function and its role in social life, dance - dance Sangihe grouped in two parts, namely: Castle and Folk Dances.
a. Dance Palace
1. Dance Gunde
At first dance danced individually gunde kampong-kampong by women who are still virgins at marriage ceremonies depicting the sanctity of a woman Sangihe. Gunde in Sangihe means slow. (A. Takaonselang-Manganitu, interview. 2006).
At one time come in the arts to be part of the Palace dikerajaan Manganitu art. Dancers selected from the best dancers in each village. Motion of basic dance dance gunde adapted from Lide. This dance was originally performed as dance entertainment for the king, then changed its function into an important guest pickup dance performed in front of the royal palace. Over the years, there are some dancers gunde concubine palace then became king. Distribution includes all dancers gunde Manganitu empire.
2. Dance and Dance Alabadiri Sahabe stimuli.
Dance ransa / excitatory sahabe or dangsang sahabe is created from a dance contest. This dance was born of royal palaces environmentally 1700.Pada Tabukan year when it happened kefakuman kingship after King Don Francis Yuda - I put an end to his post. To fill the vacancy in prepared with a special race to two candidates for the king's successor. Two people are Dalero and Pandialang. Competition is a rowing race prepared (dorehe). The path starting from Salimahe to Punge (beng sea island).
The competition took place circa 1720 and was won by Dalero with fraud. Of that victory dalero entitled to occupy the throne. Another name is Mark James dalero Dalero. To commemorate the victory, dalero create a dance that dance called Alabadiri. Pandialang only in Sahabe Jogugu positions. Pandialang a disappointment, then create a dance game called Sahabe stimuli. In general dance and ransang alabadiri sahabe have in common.
Alabadiri dance, can dikelompokam as a form of theatrical dance. Dancers represent the characters from a story in the form of dance movement. Alabadiri dance form of the 10 stages with the concept of dance and different story. Alabadiri dance using dance as supporting some of the properties; kulubalang, kaliau, tokoting, sinsing, Sondang. This dance is khusu played by a man accompanied by a "Tambor" (not tagonggong) and led by a pangataseng and two capita.
Alabadiri dance stages are:
1. Tribute to the audience (opening)
2. Movement by means of kulubalang (stick decorated)
3. Movement by means of tokoting (whip of rattan)
4. Movement by means of sinsing (ring)
5. Movement by means of Sondang (small knife)
6. Mesalai movement (dance)
7. Movement plays kaliau (shield) to the ear
8. Movement plays kaliau (shield) to the knee
9. Mangaemba movement (fly like a bird)
10. Tribute to the audience (cover)
The main philosophy of this dance means "submissive and obedient to the ruler.
Upase dance, is a dance that illustrates the readiness of the king's guard in every battle. This dance is also called Opase.
Upase opase troops in the dance,
Kingdom of Tabukan 1927
12 children noble men in the army běngko
Běngko dance, is a dance which was adapted from the royal soldiers Tabukan role in guarding the king. This dance illustrates the readiness of combat troops in the face of the enemy. In the language of Sangihe, bengko means spear.
Dance Kabasaran Tambor. This dance illustrates the spirit of war, delivered through beatings Tambor. It is estimated that this art form adapted from European art. This dance is already extinct and never played again.
Tambor Kabasaran Tabukan royal troops, 1927
b. Folk dance
1. Salo Dance
Salo is raging. Salo Dance is an ancient dance form performed the ceremony sundeng until the entry of European nations in Sangihe. The procession Salo is done by surrounding the sacrifice of pigs. Accompanied by the sounds of ethnic music Sangihe while stabbing pigs hanging in the tree. Salo dance was born as an expression of a war between good and evil in the trust sundeng (G, Makamea, and communities around the place of the ceremony, interview, 2006) Dance Salo who was once part of traditional rituals became part of folk dance performances. This dance is usually exhibited when there is an honored guest visits or in the event tuludě. In addition there are also dance upase Salo, bengko dance, dance and dangsang sahabe alabadiri depicting the spirit, in the form of dance theater. Salo is a folk dance dance dance while upase, bengko dance, dance alabadiri and dangsang sahabe is a dance palace.
Dance performances Salo, on the anniversary Hardiknas 2009 in Tahuna
2. Dance AMPA wayer
In the era of 1940 - an, was born a new folk art, called "AMPA wayer". This art is folk art that emerged from the islands of Siau. Art is an adaptation and combination of European art with local arts. This dance has evolved since the days of Spanish domination in the royal Siau and find its identity toward the end of World War - II. AMPA wayer is a dance group led by a chapel. Formed based on the rhythmic movements of dance music accompaniment. In essence, the core of this art is a dance of young people who danced in a collection of crowd spontaneously as a form of expression of freedom and independence.
3. Mědunde dance.
This dance tells about the background of the birth of Siau island. At first glance, the stories in this dance is similar to Tumatenden stories and stories from the North Minahasa Joko Tarub of Java. This dance tells the story of an arranged marriage between a man named Mědunde with an angel from Khayangan. Early stories, poetry was an intelligent medunde once into the forest to look for birds. But he just met an angel who was showered with 9 people saudaranya.Salah one of the angel who later became his wife. Of the marriage were born two children named pahawon sulugě and kanawoeng (kanawoeng pahawontoka title). Siau taken from the word sio (nine) of the nine fairy tale and Mědunde (book toponimi ,............ Agency official culture diknas, 2006)
4. Dance Kakalumpang
This dance evolved since the days of the VOC in Sangihe combined with community activities. The background story is: Ternate as an extension of the VOC claimed power over Sangihe, so that the people Sangihe should give tribute to the imperial ternate.
Tributes are given in the form of coconut oil. From this was born the activities shaved coconut Měkakalumpang art. Dance kakalumpang also got a touch of embarrassment by gaba-gaba dance.
Kakalumpang dance performances, hardiknas 2009 in Tahuna
There are still many arts Sangihe that can not be
developed such as: Art and art mebowo meganding.
Mebowo art, is an art form performed in
form of singing to lull the baby in the cradle.
Disclosure of the song only with a meaningful poem
Baby swing tribe Sangihe
In addition to some art that has been described previously, there is also a native of Islamic art Sangihe namely: Hadrah dazed, Samrah and Derivatives. All kinds of Islamic art Sangihe, was originally born and developed in Tabukan then spread throughout the Muslim populated areas.
Fine art is an expression of aesthetic ideas or feelings and meaningful is realized through the media, point, line, plane, shape, color, texture, light and dark are arranged with certain principles. Expression of the work already done disangihe sani way of summons prehistoric cave walls like paintings, pottery, etc.. The creation of art works is dominated by works of art made in the form of craft. Which include works of art Sangihe include: Preparation of textiles including clothing, or clothing of the Sangihe, kerajianan wicker, architecture, decoration, boat building. All aspects of the creation of works of art based activities Sangihe tradition.
A. Variety of Ornamental Sangihe
Since prehistoric times, tribal Sangihe already know and use decorative. The oldest decorative pottery found in ancient human or kitchen equipment which experts estimated age of 5000 years.
Below is a decorative ornament with a technique modified from cukil and press (membutsir) on pottery.
Distribution of pottery with a pattern like this ever found in Talaud, also found in some cave coral in Sangihe.
This decorative grouped in type Raramenusa.
Decorative type raramenusa
In addition to decorative type raramenusa there are also other ornaments based on the design of Steller kgf. Decorative Sangihe used for various kinds of handicrafts such as the manufacture of mats (sapie / tepihê), room divider cloth, bed cloth, carvings kawila (betel nut).
JEWELRY IN THE FORM OF THE TECHNIQUE MERONCEH
NALANG U anging
TALUKE MALIHUGE U GINANTOLANG
Textile-related crafts in the Sangihe been produced since a long time, such as the manufacture of cloth, room divider curtains, tablecloths, cloth pads for beds and clothing.
a. Woven fabric
Woven into kewilayah archipelago along with the inclusion of the nations who are familiar with bronze and besi.Mereka introduce a simple loom tied around the body by the name of this Gedogan.Tenunan lungsi yarn using continuous arrangement. Type - the type of fiber found in Indonesia as a base material woven are: fiber hemp, palm, raffia, abaca and pineapple fiber.
In Sangihe, yarn made from Abaca fiber (or musa musa textilis mindanesis) kind of banana Pisangan in Sangihe called koffo or hote. Plants hote is also known by the name Manila Hemp. (Cut Kamaril Ward, Rachael Panggabean, Textiles, 2005).
Motif - decorative motifs woven in Indonesia under the influence of China, India and Arabic. Aside from being a fashion, fabrics used in a variety of human life activities such as religious ceremonies and dowry. (Encyclopedia of Indonesia)
Sangihe tribe knew several techniques of fabric dyeing using natural ingredients around. Red, purple, brown bark using mangrove (Mangrove) and Seha or noni (Morinda citrifoia) Noni Plant mangroves and scattered throughout the village on the island of Sangihe besar.Warna kesumba red. From evidence found through the effects of fabric left over from the fabric color - not found an old cloth using yellow staining technique. The colors that appear on kahiwu parents are red, purple, brown, light brown color of the original hote.
Sangihe weaving activity declined starting from 1889. At that time the tree - Abaca tree was cut on the orders of Dutch colonial rule and replaced with cotton, sugarcane and tobacco. Kerajiann weaving survived until 1994 by a craftsman from the village sent Lenganeng to Jakarta. However, until now in every village still has one to three people who can weave cloth koffo. Tool - looms past is still owned by the craftsmen in several villages such as, Manumpitaeng, Lenganeng Batunderang.
In 1898, the royal cloth Tabukan send koffo in Manado on the orders of the kingdom Tabukan kaya.Tahun 1924 exhibition held in Pekalongan koffo cloth and get the award Erediploma. In 1926 the king Tabukan exhibited in Manado was awarded bronze. In the same fabric on display in Jogyakarta koffo.
Cain kofo (room divider) and the handkerchief found in Manumpitaeng ± 120 years old.
In addition to producing woven fabric (kahiwu), interest Sangihe also able to make a fashion or clothing. In general, men's clothing called Bali ', women's clothing called tepu behavior, shirts called (baniang). The tools used to weave fabric called Kahiwuang.
Estimated age of these clothes reach 120 tahun.Ditemukan in Manumpitaeng, kauhis and several other places in Sangihe.
In their daily lives Sangihe tribal past, the clothes can menenunjukan differences in social status. There are clothes that are used in the court and the nobles and some are used by ordinary people. In general, model clothing and apparel nobility of ordinary people are not much different. The difference is the coloring techniques and attributes or accessories are used. Since the entry of European nations in Sangihe, clothing and accessories to change the model and function in society.
b. Women's clothing "Behaviour tepu"
Behaviour tepu empress (boki) and 12 ladies in waiting of
Tabukan empire beginning in 1920.
Ampuang women's clothing (religious leaders of
c. Model Konde
Konde in Sangihe called Boto. Konde model used by women in general shaped Sangihe pusige Boto. Bun form consists of two kinds: bun to ampuang in rope right in the crown and the public are dipusar bun head.
Konde Konde ampuang original model
d. Baniang men's clothing (shirt) and the behavior of bali
The use of behavior bali equipped with poporong
Clothing kingking model - shackle,
war dance clothing
e. Model poporong
In the language of Sangihe, the headscarf is poporong.Penutup chief has given a limit on the position of Sangihe in daily life, for social status and position of the Sangihe depicted on the use and form poporong.
Poporong of fabric koffo, age ± 100 years
Poporong Sangihe based on old traditions.
Model poporong new creations
B. Handicrafts (handicrafts)
Crafts people who dominated the domestic work of the past is the manufacture of wicker. Matting Sangihe has a special hallmark of comparison with other areas in northern Sulawesi. It is not known when people began to weave Sangihe. Matting has become a daily part of people's lives Sangihe. Most of woven handicrafts made for disposable items, such as mats, bika, where fruit, baskets, fish traps, and others.
In addition to weaving, the Sangihe also produces pottery or pottery (from soil material) and tools made by blacksmiths. Activity blacksmith work has been done since the days of Makaampo. Another opinion also said that the production of blacksmiths began the 15th century. Tools produced by blacksmiths goal as disposable items used in homes, plantations and for war. People who are expert in iron menempah called "kipung".
Tole Sondang Loahi
Tool - a tool made by kipung to date.
Sangihe communities also recognize theatrical arts. Art is growing in an area called Kuma Gagaweang. Art is displayed once a year every year end. Pergelarannya techniques in the form of a parade around the village with clothing and royal attributes. Composition of the line based on the role as follows: Barisan leader is King which was followed by his subordinates ranging from Bobato, Jogugu, Sea Captain, Mayore, Law Mayore, Sadaha, Capita, Kumelaha, Sawehi (shaman), Mihinu (Junior palakat). Once completed around the village the participants eat together at home or kapitalaung old custom, before the food is eaten together, should be sampled by a person who acts as sadaha. For the purpose of knowing whether the food is poisonous or not.
(Information, Mr.. Derek Lahunduitan, Kuma - November 2009)
CHAPTER - VII
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Sangihe people are the only tribe in the northern Indonesian sailors. Sangihe ancestors had sailed the ocean to the east to the Halmahera and Papua, keselatan get to the island of Java and to the outer archipelago of the china.
"To be sure, these islands has been since the invention of Ferdinand Magelhaes in the year 1512, has been associated with the western world, also by whalers from amerika.Orang china and has been since ancient Arabs began trading with the population and mate with native women. For sailors who brave inhabitants of this island since centuries - centuries ago gone down with their boats to different parts of the Indian archipelago. Pieter Alstein and David Haak of the report visit to Talaud wrote that people with own boats sailed to Batavia, Malacca, Manila and Siam. (D. Brillman, Zending dikepulauan Sangi, and talaud.terjemahan GMIST)
A. Boat Sangihe
Ability to create or design a variety of boat has been owned since the common ancestor. This capability is not owned by other tribes in northern Sulawesi. Even today, some of the ships used to transport the sea on cruise lines philiphin, Talaud, Manado, bitung, Halmahera Sangihe produced by people who are not experts in academia shipping.
The boat is a vital means of linking several islands in the archipelago Sangihe. Without a boat, Sangihe economy will be crippled. Every coastal village has experts make Prahu. This activity has become part of customary Sangihe. From culture to make a boat then came the old rituals menondo sakaeng or lowering the boat.
Boat Sangihe been widely known since the entry of Spain in Sangihe. Sangihe boats are often used as a fleet of war such as a fleet of naval war between the Portuguese and VOC in Tondano. The oldest boat Sangihe is bininta or tumbilung, then came the boat kora-kora, konteng, Londe and bolotu, including rowing boats for the race.
The use of boats in different activities of daily function. Sangihe boats used to fish manangkap, sailing between islands close, inter-island distances, fleet warfare, as the ride king, as king of boats, boat guards the king, combat boats, ferry boats (bolotu) boat when the boat is used kora-kora can not kepantai and docked the boat race. Sealain boat use are also miniature boats used in the ceremony called menahulending banua lapasi. The boat is useful for bringing disease and all human misfortune dumped on land and sea along with miniature boats.
Some boat models based on design kgf Steller in the book "Sangirees-nedherlands Woordenboek" of the actual model and the modifications to be adjusted by Alffian Walukow.
1. Boat Bininta
Grafland in Minahasa books past and present (translation Skin Jost) writes that there is already Sangihe boat anchored at the port of Manado in 1800 with boat name Kora-kora and tumbilung. Tumbilung same boat with bininta but tumbilung using three bahateng.
Mr boat tumbilung based design. KGFSteller who stylized by Alffian Walukow
2. Boat kora - kora, this boat is a boat Sangihe state kings.
3. Boat types and progress Londe
Customer adaptation of Londe
Boat type pambut, a traditional boat philipin who also produced and used in Sangihe.
Jetty in Kampung Kaluwatu
Photos. Alffian Waluko
4. Boat konteng
This boat is a boat that used the king in his visit to the subordinate.
Pamo boat, is an adaptation of konteng.
Sangihe ancestors have been using the technology and the science has long known of them, making various kinds of boats, know the system of astrology, lunar calendars and dates in the sky. It is not known since when the ability for knowledge and technology starts but has since long been used.
EYES NAME WIND
The name of the wind Indonesia Sangihe
North northeast Laesuiki sawenahe
East northeast Laesuiki forehead
East southeast Mahaing forehead
South southeast Mahaing timuhe
South southwest Tahanging timuhe
West, southwest Tahanging bahe
West, northwest Poloeng bahe
North northwest Poloeng sawenahe
Name Name Sangihe day Indonesia
NAME MONTH calendar
LANGUAGE IN Sangihe
Indonesia month name Name Sangihe
July Bulawa kadodo
August Bulawa geguwa
December Lurangu tambaru
LIST NAMES IN THE SKY BY DAY OF THE MONTH
Valid name of the month
1 Kahumata - Pakĕsa
2 Kahumata - karuane
3 Kahumata - katelune
4 Sebangu - harese
5 Batangengu - harese
6 Likud'u - harese
7 Sehangu - letu
8 Batangu - letu
9 Likud'u - letu
11 Sehangu pangumpia
12 Batangnegu pangumpia
14 Limangu headdress
16 Sai pakesa
17 Sai karuane
18 Sai katelune
19 Sehangu harese
20 Batangengu harese
21 Likudu harese
22 Sehangu letu
23 Batangengu letu
24 Likud, u letu
26 Sehangu pangumpia
27 Batangengu pangumpia
29 Limangung base
B. Dwelling Houses
Based on the findings of experts, human habitation of prehistoric saman Sangihe is in the cave - the cave corals. In legend, ancient human habitation Sangihe is a large tree branch and the tree - the tree is collapsed. Along with the development time and unfamiliar technology, they began to make the house - a modest home.
At first a very simple form of the house. Based on the understanding that some cultural Sangihe homes Sangihe is pamangkonang. (Wawancara. M. Madonsa .2007). Later developed into the home tie. It said the home tie but it does not use a nail tied with rattan.
Construction of the home tie design: Alffian Walukow
Construction ikat design house Alffian walukow
Sangihe not have a home spare cubicle or room. Since the entry of Spain in Sangihe, Sangihe people have started to build the house with the construction of cement concrete menggunakann burnt coral. In the early days of Dutch colonial late 1700 to early 1800 yr Sangihe people have started using the chamber in home construction. Home last tie was found in the village Lehupu.
Construction of wooden houses is the house on stilts Sangihe people. Among the houses built there are public houses where the house is a gathering place for indigenous customary law of each fellowship smallest banua who would later become the king's house or palace. The house is called Bale Lawo.
Toward the end of Dutch colonial rule, bale lawo got a touch of Europe in terms of construction strength but still retains the authenticity of the model. Houses Sangihe D. Brilman is based on records: The houses built on high poles, has a staircase entrance appointed home at night time. There is a common foyer and a spacious living room with the same broad porch and kana umum.Disebelah left there sleeping chambers separated by walls of wood, bamboo or a curtain. If one family member to get married then the house will be connected on the back. The more who get married it will be the length of his house. Houses like these are occupied by 25 to 30 households. Construction sperti house was last found on islands Nanusa. Many original homes Sangihe people experiencing culling due to volcanic eruptions.
Construction longhouse based on records and in the reconstruction of D. Brilman repeated by alffian walukow
Construction of a concrete house early days of colonial (post-VOC)
Tamako old house over 100 years old
The old house was inaugurated on 11-6-1930 Laine
Inauguration of the house in 1925 in Naha by boki kingdom Tabukan
C. Lawo bale.
Bale lawo or palace is home to many people. This house was established as a public meeting place in a unity of law in indigenous communities Sangihe with the king as well as the residence of the king. Balelawo first established by Balango in sahabe.
Figure bale Mr. lawo based design. K.G.F. Steller
and adapted by Alffian walukow.
Appears intact / tilt perspective
D. Traditional foods
a. General food
The main interest is food Sangihe sago, which is produced from palm tree species. On the island there are different types of palm Sangihe are: Arena tau palm (Arenga pinnata), betel nut (philiphina origin), Areca palm (Actinorhytis calapparia), Sago sago palm (sago Metroxylan), Coconut (Cocos nucifera), rattan sega (Calamus caesius ), Sarai king (Caryota no), Sarai midi (Caryota maxima), yellow and red palm endemic Sangihe. Looking at its shape, the tree is producing disangihe Sago sago (sago Metroxylan), Sarai king (Caryota no) and Sarai midi (Caryota maxima).
In addition to consuming sago, society Sangihe also recognize the existence of rice produced from the dry fields. In addition to sago and rice, cassava food is typical Sangihe (Sangihe = bungkahe), potato tuber (Sangihe; ima or batata) and taro (Sangihe = chole). Every day people Sangihe produce sago in large numbers. Places to produce sago called pamangkonang. Vegetables are the main people Sangihe Sakede (leaf melinjo), vegetable spikes, vegetables and vegetable Wori Gedi. Marine fish are the main dishes of pork plus (for the Christians) and lamb (for the Muslims).
At first people do not eat meat Sangihe rats, dogs, bats, snakes and lizards, but since the entry of the Minahasa people in kelp. Sangihe Sangihe people then start taking it. Among the foods often consumed, the oldest recipe is a yellow diamond, grilled fish, grilled and sago soup SASI (sauce mixed with marine fish oil). Food recipes to date is the dominant fuel Sago, boiled sweet potatoes, coconut milk combined with vegetables and grilled fish. To party or event that presents a lot of people are always prepared diamond.
People familiar with rice wrapped Sangihe since the end of their belief sundeng. At first, diamond or empihise become part of the offering in the place of ritual sacrifice of humans and animals as a sacrifice. Ketupat sadjen is required in the diamond with the name bebatung goats.
Sangihe people recognize 16 types of woven diamond based techniques namely: bawatung, muntia, dokongmanu, discard tariang, kaemba, bituing, bebatun goats, kasumbure, bininta, pikang, sawaku, mehisa, waliung, batung kapese and kalemba. Kalemba diamond diamond is the most important in religious ceremonies of the past.
The types of diamond Sangihe.
Based on oral stories, Tamo was first made at the wedding Mangulundagho with Bangsang peliang in Bongko lumenehe (Kampung dagho now) Tamo made from various kinds of food which was then called Golopung (Gideon Makamea, the prospect of cultural and historical traditions kab.kepl area. Sangihe and Talaud-2008).
Making the second by Talongkati Tamo (aunt of Makaampo) on Makaampo wedding. (Toponimi, stories and ... ... .2006). Tamo is a traditional food Sangihe can not be found elsewhere. Tamo is food that has a specific philosophy of dealing with people's lives since Sangihe ancestors. The main philosophy of Tamo is "Answer and honor" in the customary Sangihe. Tamo is a form of food that has a background story disangihe early life.
Based on oral literary Sangihe common in some areas, Tamo was first used in conjunction with the royal presence Tabukan namely at the wedding feast with wangsang peliang mangulundagho in dagho. (Village dagho now). Typically, Tamo only expressed in the event that presents a lot of people. Because based on the tradition that Tamo made should be eaten. Tamo also as a symbol of the invitation. If a party has been placed in position Tamo then all citizens must be present and into the party. From the background of this story is part of the Tamo togetherness. Tamo's presence in a single event represents all the food there. Tamo is among the most food istimewah food there is, for that Tamo must be put in place very special. Provided that can be seen by everyone who attended the event.
Tamo old recipe is a mixture of rice, root crops, sugar, coconut oil, but this recipe does not last long because perishable. At this time Tamo recipe consists of rice, sugar and coconut oil. To make Tamo must pass through several customary conditions including, people who will cook not being in a state of fight before it gets to the kitchen, a place to put kuwali must use 3 stones as stoves. Because this cake so sacred oil that drips from the mold Tamo who are always stored as oil efficacious to cure disease.
The most important part in making Tamo is a ritual "memoto Tamo" (cut Tamo). Before cutting Tamo, who was assigned to cut Tamo must convey sasalamate sasalamate named Tamo. The contents of sasalamate Tamo Tamo is a story about itself and about the good message or advice to many people. As a food istimewah the past Tamo must be wrapped and not visible.
Tamo, was first recognized in a wedding the daughter of a king dikerajaan Tabukan Parent. Wedding took place after the founding of the Kingdom of Tampungang Lawo, 400 years ago or after the collapse of Majapahit. In the past Tamo has two specifications of shape and usefulness of Tamo Tamo Boki white and brown as it is still made to date (Drs. Happy Diamanis History Teachers' Training College Graduate Affairs Manado, interview 2006)
Tamo is the most important philosophy of Inviting people to come in a lot of meetings. From among any community can come in a thanksgiving celebration or event without an invitation when the show is already visible Tamo. (Statement of Mr. Manossoh Chairman of the Board and the father Mehare Sangihe customary in a conversation before making Tamo Giant in the Office of Tourism and Culture Sangihe, 2006)
Tamo is not a social status but in the end Tamo changed position and its use in the celebration events or shower. Tamo later became part of the social status of the community. This was proved by Tamo placed on special occasions very special events organized by local leaders or other events that are very specific as traditional and modern weddings. Until now there has never been made public Sangihe Tamo as selling cakes on the market or as a daily food. Tamo so sacred custom cake that revealed one another statement saying that Tamo custom cakes should be wrapped with an opaque cover, because based on the habits that Tamo's cake Laksana a beautiful woman who is very respectable. (Statement Hengky Natingkase S.Ip. Youth Leader , 2006)
Under an agreement between the traditional leaders in council Sangihe that may no longer use the flag on top of Tamo. On the grounds that there is no spirit of red and white flag in the customary cake Tamo Tamo because there are already hundreds of years before Indonesia Merdeka. (Statement Mehare father, a member of council in talks about the Giants in the Office Disparbud Tamo Sangihe, 2006)
When finished processing it ready Tamo in print in a mold of a natural material that is fur.
1. Construction Tamo
Tamo has a main element of which is the body Tamo, plus accessories on the body of a shrimp Tamo (past) placed at the base of a wide - range of traditional foods section buds Tamo sangihe.Pada initially placed the egg symbolizes new life (according to the story of early humans in the story gumansalangi) After the war of independence the egg symbol was replaced with red and white flag of the country, 20 006 years are no longer using the flag at the top but the flowers or eggs.
Mr. Tamo's design model. Jacob, an old Muslim mosque imam Kampung Lenganeng and cosmetology by Alffian Walukow.
CHAPTER - VIII
LANGUAGE AND literary Sangihe
A. Language Sangihe
Excavation language JNSnedon Sangihe been done by the book and the Proto Sangiric sangiric languages. Language Sangihe including Austronesian or Malay and Polynesian languages belonging Philliphina. Sangihe grammarians is the famous Dr. N. Adriani Sangirische sprakunts with his work. Sangihe language vocabulary that has been recorded can be found in the book of Mr.KGF Steller and W.E. Aerbersol with the title Sangirische woerdenbock Nederlands. (Decroly Judah, Spd.Tata Language Sangihe, 2004).
Sangihe language has no script, because the tribe does not recognize Sangihe own writing system. Since the influx of Europeans, Sangihe people have started using Latin letters as a form of writing. Sangihe language users include large Sangihe island and surrounding smaller islands, the island of Siau and surrounding areas, Taghulandang Island and surrounding areas, Talaud island and the island - the island borders the northern Indonesia. Some areas around the Minahasa like Stripe, Bantik, old Manado, Bunaken, Naenk, Siladeng, Mentehage, Ganges, Bangka, Talise, Likupang, Lembe, Part Bitung, the foot of Mount klabat. Island dressing and Island saranggani in Philliphina (H. Kern in Sangihe Grammar, Decroly Juda, 2004)
Sangihe language and other languages in northern Sulawesi have the same type of Aglutinered (berafiks language).
Affix is the element that is added to the base or primary forms (Daryanto, SS, complete Indonesian Dictionary, 1997)
Sangihe language is divided into eight dialects, namely:
1. Dialect Tabukan
2. Tahuna dialect
3. Dialect Kendahe
(Bawolle, 1981 in Prof. ABGRatu - Language in Minahasa, Minahasa Cultural Profile)
In general, Sangihe language has only three dialects of dialects Sangihe Sangihe island, Siau Island dialects and dialect Taghulandang Siau Island Taghulandang. Sangihe language users in Minahasa estimated at one hundred thousand people (Minahasa Cultural Profiles 1997). In Bolaang Mongondow, Sangihe language users include several sub-areas such as hamlets Dodap Kotabunan, Poigar, Lolak District, Pangi excl. The Tombolang, Bintauna, Mokoditek Bolangintang excl. (Oral Literature Bolaang Mongondow 1984)
In the science of language, the letter is a symbol of sound, to write the alphabet consists of 18 Sangihe Latin script are:
(Decroly Juda, S. Pd, grammar Sangihe, 2004).
B. Literature Sangihe
Interest Sangihe past knew no literature in written form but has a lot of oral literature. Literature in the lives of Sangihe have a very deep meaning. In a sense that the lives of people Sangihe flow together with the oral literature, became part of the soul, and to guide the life of society. Sangihe Martial Arts in the past has given rise to rules of order of life.
Sangihe oral literature has been written by some people from the Netherlands, especially the Zending and church workers, but to date the books were never found. Sangihe oral literature has the function of each - each based on its shape. In this paper, the authors try to explain briefly some of the forms of literature and literary creations of some excavations that have been terinfentarisasi.
One of the things that make penginfentarisasian and development of oral literature Sangihe is;
1. Most of the elderly narrator thus allowing oral literary extinction.
2. Many people who have said that literary verbal ability did not want to share them with others, assume that the story belongs to the family owned.
3. The absence of a system of inheritance in general. Oral literary inheritance only to people - certain people.
4. Many oral stories that have been written by some students of history in the form of freelance writing is always hidden.
5. The lack of awareness of government and relevant parties to make oral literary digging as deep as possible and then membukukannya complete.
The things that reinforce the oral tradition disangihe so that they can survive is wholeness Sangihe language, and is part of the customs. Sangihe language used by the tribe Sangihe that use only one language is the language Sangihe. In everyday life, language Sangihe know stratification in its use of age distinctions listener. Language Sangihe divided into two parts based on their use in cultural activities and bermasyrakat namely: Language Sangihe everyday and literary language called Sangihe sasahara language.
Sangihe oral literature is classified in several forms, namely:
1. Story, a tale of kings and royal history, folklore and fairy tales, genealogy of kings and family genealogy.
4. Me, bowo
a. Saga of the kings
Since the past in oral literary Sangihe has evolved which tells the life of the kings of Sangihe such as:
- The story of King and Princess Konda Gumansalangi hope.
Gumansalangi were men who came from outside Sangihe who then met with Princess Konda Konda asa or Sangiang Wulaeng. From the meeting of two characters have given birth in the royal system Sangihe.
- The story of King Sham Syach Kendahe Nature of the kingdom of intercourse with her own daughter that resulted in the destruction of Bulaeng Tanding Maselihe Cape. From the event has spawned a new tribe called tribe Bantik.
- The story of King Makaampo mighty and cruel. Makaampo is the king who had many wives. Ever megadakan Minahasa expansion up to the mainland and several times to destroy pirate forces from Mindanao. Because the behavior is eventually betrayed and killed by his own guards named Ambala Hengkeng allied with 'u shade of sea captains of royal Siau.
- The story of heroism King Bataha Santiago who would not submit to the power of the VOC. Eventually he was sentenced to death on the gallows by Sultan Kaitjil Sibori (Prins Amsterdam, who was appointed by the sultan of Ternate VOC), on the orders of Robert Pardbrugge (Governor VOC). The death of Santiago is the result of his own betrayal and Bowohanggima Sasebohe named.
In addition to stories about kings there are also stories of heroism of the brave Sangihe called Bahaning Beo'e. Of the many stories of heroism there are some legendary stories in the area where the story is told like: The story of Commander of the sea Hengkeng'u shade of royal Siau. The story of the brave from Tamako Ambala.
b. Folklore and fairy tales.
There are several folk tales and fairy tales are often described as:
- Stories Angsuang bake, giant mountain awu an angry ruler and resulted in the birth Awu volcano.
- Romance story with a fairy Madunde Sese who later gave birth to the island of Siau.
- The story upung Wuala. A stealth crocodiles that live in Laine. If the gift that he asked not to be given the stealth would be angry crocodiles and human casualties. Wuala Upung all the time traveling from Laine to Salurang walked upright like a human and use iakat red head.
- Bangkoang romance story with a daughter of eminent peliang breathe le'ku of Tamako, Of love the bear fights with Bahede ..
Oral Literature in Sangihe yag classify as prose is Sasalamate. Prose is a form of writing stories compiled by the language of poetry.
Sasalamate is: free poems drawn from literary language and expressions Sangihe sasahara are usually sung at certain ceremonies, in order to salvation for those with an interest in the show. (Gideon Makamea, Learning expressions and literary areas, Sangihe I kekendage, 2003)
Indonesian literature divides poetry into two types, namely the old poems and new poems. Sangihe oral literature that is classified as a poem included in a long poem that is: Pantun (papantung, medenden), Puzzles (tinggung-tinggung or tatinggung) and mantras (incantations of people who were called makalanto). Of the three forms of poetry the most perbendaharaannya Sangihe is Mantra.
Until now there are many spells that can diinfentarisir Sangihe of the population. Developments in kepl incantation. Sangihe through two periods, namely use of a mantra in the days before Islam and Muslim aftermath. One of the core words to the spell before the advent of Islam is said ruata, after Islam entered emerging use of the word bismillah.
Spells Sangihe classified into several sections by function are:
- Spell to kill people who are still alive.
- Spell to revive the dead.
- Spell to make healthy people sick
- Spell to heal the sick
- Spells to get people hooked
- Mantra for safety.
- Charm spells to ward off
- Mantra for the magic one.
- Spells associated with natural phenomena such as rain, eliminating the rain, repel storm-tossed sea.
Of the many literary spoken in Sangihe there is one of the oldest oral literary form called Me, bowo or Bawowo. Bawowo is an activity undertaken by parents using sayir beautiful poems, pitched like a chorus. This literary form is presented at the time of the child to sleep. Bawowo contents consist of a single sentence.
kawowo host kawowo, ana nitendengi lawo, suhiwang takahalaweng, takaendengangu what.
Meaning: the sweet honey spoiled child saying the crowd, in the lap of a fortified not be why.
(Gideon Makamea, Learning expressions and literary areas, Sangihe I kekendage, 2003)
Sangihe expression has an important position in
all oral satera Sangihe. Almost all forms of
Sangihe loading oral literary expression. In general,
Sangihe expression serves as advice, regulatory
and motivation to live.
Examples of expression Sangihe the best known are:
- Somahe kai kehage
- Mekaraki pato tumondo Mapia, Kaeng Balang sengkahindo
- I akang ganting gaghurang
- Nusa kumbahang katumpaeng.
KINGDOM IN Sangihe
Sangihe already know the system of governance in community life with the royal form of government. The system adopted by the royal government kingdoms in Sangihe is inherited from the imperial system of government that is in Philiphina. First kingdom built on the basis kemonarkian or dynasty, the monarchy means dipi, pim by one person. Leadership by a royal family who declined extended to grandchildren, based on the male lineage.
At the end of royal rule Tampungag Lawo, comes the kulano and Bahaning. Since that time the position was taken over by the brave king, in a language called Kulano Sangihe or Bahaning parrots' e. (In the Maluku islands, Kulano is king).
When viewed from the word "Tampungang Lawo" broadly means a place where many people gathered, showed a democratization has been built since the old kingdom. Although the power of the kings on dynasty but must bring a lot of people in every decision. Changes in the social system of kinship society Sangihe undergone several changes since the start of the patrilineal system Gumansalangi Up to Makaampo, bilateral system of kingdoms Tabukan since the beginning until the early years of Dutch colonial 1800.Tetapi one period along with the influence of power ampuang - ampuang women, Sangihe never embraced the system which followed the matrilineal kinship lineage mother. Although the kinship system never changes but the responsibility of each family batih on gaghurang (parents) in which the husband or the wife is responsible together with the family. Kinship system is estimated by following the father's lineage (patrilineal) came into force since there is the influence of Europe on Sangihe.
The use of clan or fam come into force since the enactment of the law of the land. Many disangihe land that is not proprietary. This influences if the system of slavery and absolute royal power in the past until later emerged lands family. (Known as the land in Minahasa Kalakeran). Sangihe community knows only land based family clan descent, the royal family land and soil - soil-free (non-proprietary).
Sangihe social levels according to D. Brillman are:
1. Nobility, composed of kings, jogugu and his family.
2. Citizens are free
3. A freed slave
4. The slaves.
Royal hokowalumpulo included in the class, gentility hokolimampulo included in the class, ordinary people included in the class hokotalumpulo, slaves were classified as allangga. Governance structures Sangihe empire is: The highest level is called the king's second datu.Tingkatan bobato regional leaders under royal or level with the duke. (Duke is the regent level positions in the tradition of Java). Tingakatan into three Lao opo or Captain of the Sea (Indonesia encyclopedia)
The structure of the royal government in Sangihe during VOC, ranging from the highest to the lowest.
1. The king called a datu
2. Bobato (including presidenti king / king officials temporarily)
4. Presidency Jogugu (if needed)
5. Sea Captain (admiral)
6. Mayore (Mayore gaguwa or Mayore Labo)
7. Law Mayore
12. Sawehi (shaman)
13. Mihinu (Junior palakat)
(A. Horohiung in Santiago book against the VOC, 1990)
Power of the king - a king in Sangihe experienced some form of government, namely: the original kings rule by dynasty Sangihe / descent who terwaris in the family, kings reign Sangihe based on the influence of Spanish and Portuguese, kings reign Sangihe based on the influence of VOC and the Indian colonial government dutch, Sangihe kings reign by the appointment of Japanese authorities.
Before the king pengistilahan used in the system Sangihe royal government, had preceded the use of the word datu 'for the position of king. Pengistilahan This coincided with the kingdom comes first in the region called Kedatuan.Wilayah Sangihe Sangihe ranging from islands around the archipelago Saranggani Philiphina, Talaud islands, the islands Sangihe, and Taghulandang Siau island, and islands that exist around Minahasa peninsula. Sangihe kingdom through the long reign of power began Gumansalangi Dynasty which ended in the VOC.
A. Period old kedatuan
Kingdom that originally stood in the territory assigned to the kedatuan Sangihe, because at that time the term used for the highest leadership of Datu kerajaan.Kedatuan old stand early - first is as follows.
a. Kedatuan Bowontehu.
Bowontehu Sangihe Bowongkehu taken from the
literally means above or dipuncak forest. Region
This kingdom is one of the 10 landscapes (small kingdom)
submitted by the sultan of Ternate to the VOC with
with royal Tubuguo (Tabukan) in 1609. (History of
Minahasa, Contract January 10, 1679, p.61). Based on the literary
oral Sangihe, the kingdom was founded by Datu Mokodoludugh
that the person referred Mokoduluduth Mongondow on
century - X. The kingdom is regarded as the oldest royal
which became part of the territory of Sangihe.
Mokodoludugh memperisteri Baunia and begot
Lokongbanua, Yayukbongkai, Uringsangiang and Sinangiang.
Lokongbanua later became King of the kingdom Siau First.
Bowontehu Pasibori during the reign of king (sultan of
ternate), conquered by the king of the kingdom named Bolaang
Damopolii (kinalang). (History of the kingdom Mongondow, Tabloid
Media Education, Nov.2009) Kedatuan Tampungang
lawo.Didirikan during the period of the year 1300 AD (described
in the history of empire bin lawo).
1. Kedatuan Tampungang Lawo
Bin Kedatuan Lawo been legendary for generations told by people Sangihe as oral literary, be it through sasalamate, papantung, tatinggung or masamper songs. Tampungang lawo is a part that can not be separated from the history of Sangihe, although it has not found evidence of historical objects relating to the royal Tampungang Lawo.
Kedatuan Tampungang first Lawo
That said, Kedatuan Tampungang Lawo Gumansalangi established by the year 1300 to 1400, based in Manuwo, now called the village Salurang. It is estimated that the Gumansalangi started late 1200 to early 1300. At this time began the first royal system of government monarkih Sangihe. Gumansalangi the memperisteri Sangiang Konda and Melikunusa Melintangnusa Wulaeng begot. (DB Adrian "musings Sangihe Talaud story" in Toponimi, folklore and history of the area north of Nusa, Education Tahuna).
Tampungang kingdom's territory stretches from Mindanao Lawo to Bolaang Mongondow. Bin lawo royal Warlords is a memperisteri Melintangnusa Sangiang Hiabe daughter of Abubakar (a brave man from Tugis, Philliphina). Melikunusa sailed to the region and gain Menong Mongondow Sangiang.
Gumansalangi bequeath the kingdom to his son Melintangnusa in 1350. Towards the end of life Melintangnusa sailed to Mindanao and died there. Since the death of Melintangnusa, empire handed over to his son and Pahawonseke Bulegalangi. Since then the center of the kingdom split in two.
o Royal Tampungang lawo with royal center at Sahabe
o Royal Tampungang lawo with royal center at Salurang.
Royal power centered in Salurang handed over to his son named Bulegalangi. In running pemerintaha Bulegalangi assisted by his son named Matandatu. Bulegalangi brother named Pahawongseke moved to Sahabe (North Tabukan now), and form a new government. Government assisted by his son Pangatorehe. After the king Bulegalangi died, his daughter called Sitti Bai dipersunting by Balanaung while Puteri Aholiba dipersunting by Mengkangbanua and relocation to Tariang tebe (now the village Tariang Lama).
Bin Kedatuan Lawo in Sahabe (1400-1530).
Bin lawo kingdom in Sahabe founded by Kulano Pahawongseke (son of Melintangnusa). Center of the kingdom is Limu (near extension or sahabe behu). Bin lawo kingdom in sahabe later known as the kingdom sahabe, also called the kingdom of limu. Territory of the headland to headland lehe salimahe, including the island homeland, bukide, and exhaust (now Tabukan middle). Pahawongseke Pangalorelu replaced by his son. Pangalorelu replaced by Mamatanusa. Mamatanusa later became the last king in the kingdom sahabe. Mamatanusa memperisteri Neneukonda and begot two daughters named Somposehiwu and Timbangsehiwu. (From another source of oral stories, the last king is Pontowuisang Sahabe kingdom, which memperisteri Belisehiwu. Pontowuisang Siau is the king who ordered to kill Makaampo Hengkengunaung).
Kedatuan Tampungang lawo in Salurang
(1400 - 1500's)
The kingdom was founded by Kulano Bulegalangi (son of Melintangnusa), based in Salurang. Region Tampungang lawo royal power in salurang ranging from headland to pungu lehe Watu, including the islands Marore, kawio, kemboleng, memanu, matutuang, and dumarehe. Government Bulegalangi Matandatu assisted by his son who was also named as commander perang.Setelah Bulegalangi death, the royal power was replaced by his son Matandatu. Matandatu government assisted by his sons, Makalupa, Ansiga, Tangkaliwutang and their sister Talongkati. Talongkati was the son of the most daring that earned Bawu Mahaeng.
One child from Matandatu named Tangkuliwutang then begot Makaampo Wewengehe. Makaampo born in 1510 in Rainis (Talaud) from the father and mother named Tangkuliwutang named Nabuisang (from Talaud). Nabuisang was the son of Saselabe (in taghulandang) with his wife Princess Din (female of the jinn). Makaampo born twin, and twins was a serpent named Uri Makaampo. The first wife is Marinsai Makaampo. (H. Judah "Manga wĕkeng Origin 'u Sangihe Tau").
As adults makaampo memperisteri Marinsai people Bowongkalumpang children from Bolinsangiang, Makaampo leave women because caught having an affair with another man. So Makaampo memperisteri Rampeluseke a woman from Salurang, then memperisteri two brothers and Timbangsehiwu Somposehiwu. Since memperisteri Somposehiwu and Timbangsehiwu end was in salurang lawo Bin kingdom.
Background of widespread areas in salurang lawo Tampungang empire is as follows:
- Makalupa (son of Matandatu) take as a wife when Sangiang Kindi Kindi Sangiang cloth was draped from the shower, which is why the place is called Pendarehokang. After memperisteri Kindi Sangiang children from Menentonau, (kulano in Kauhis) region which includes the power Menentonau Lelapide to Pendarehokang Kindi Sangiang handed over to his son.
- Ansiga (son of Matandatu) memperisteri Gaupang (Raupang) son of warlord named Ansaaralung Dagho. Ansaaralung power in Toade manandu dagho covering up into islands Mahengelang Gaupang handed over to his son.
- Areas of Toade manandu up to Cape lelapide including submission to the royal Tampungang Tamako Lawo in Salurang top of Kelungsanda isin Tamako warlords. Wife of Kelungsanda is Taupangkonde. Taupangkonde are siblings of Gaupang (wife of Ansiga)
Bin Kedatuan second Lawo
(The birth of the so-called Kingdom of Tabukan Rimpulaeng).
Kedatuan Tampungang lawo formerly separate and then disappear, united again become a major kedatuan. Kedatuan was founded in 1530 by Makaampo Wewengehe centered on limu or sahabe Behu in former central kedatuan lawo Sahabe Bin.
Kedatuan territory includes the Tanjung Bin lawo Salimahe second to get to the island Pendarehokang Marore, Mahengetang and Talaud islands. In the reign of Makaampo Wewengehe in Sahabe Behe, he was accompanied by the empress Sompo sehiwu. While the empress lived in Salurang Sehiwu Sompo.
Makaampo Wewengehe known as the mighty king, who ruled with cruelty. As a result of cruelty that he was killed by a brave man from Ambala Tamako named commander allied with the royal marine Siau named Hengkeng u 'shade on the beach keti Stone' in 1575. Makaampo cut neck and head in between to pehe - siau.Lalu then taken by Ansiga and Makalupa and was buried in salurang. Makaampo was last datu kedatuan Tampungang Lawo basis upon which to establish a new empire under the name Tampungang lawo Tabukan. After Makaampo died, the position of datu was replaced by his son Wuateng Worship. Since then becoming known empire based in Salurang Tabukan.
b. Kedatuan Mangsohowang. Kedatuan region is located at the foot of the mountain awu, Sangihe island. Kedatuan is lost due to volcanic eruptions awu.
c. Kedatuan Karangetang. Kedatuan position is located on the island of Siau. Founded by a prince named Kedatuan Bowontehu Lokongbanua. Lokongbanua is the eldest of Mokodaludugh Lokon born in the mountains. Lokongbanua power over kedatuan Karangetang effect in 1510 - 1540 (died). Central government in Katutungang (now named Paseng). Lokongbanua begot Passuma and Angkumang.
B. After kedatuan period (the early days of European relations with the islands of Sangihe)
At this time semakain real existence of Europeans in the area north of the archipelago. Kingdom - the kingdom in Sangihe at that time experiencing a variety of situations and pressures caused by the seizure of the territory of the kingdom - the kingdom of Europe.
- Portuguese associated with Sangihe since 1563.
In 1563, King Siau named in Manado Possuma baptized by Father Diego de Magelhaes from the Portuguese. Since then opened the Portuguese relationship with Kepl. Sangihe Talaud.
- Spain controlled Sangihe in 1565.
Spanish relations with the Sangihe been started in 1521. Philliphina neighboring islands have been occupied by Spain in 1565, at the time the king who ruled in the kingdom of Siau is the King of Jeronimo.
- VOC established in 1602 and began his rule in Sangihe in 1677.
On November 1, 1677, Amsterdam King of Ternate (Kaitjil Sibori) seized the Spanish fort "Sancta Rosa" on Siau and handed it to the Governor-General Robert Paddbrugge on behalf of the VOC. At the same time the agreement was signed between the VOC with King Francis Xavier Batahi Siau. The same treaty also applies to the royal Tabukan, Tahuna and Kendahe and Taghulandang.
- Dissolution of VOCs dated December 31, 1799. Since then the VOC territory taken over by the Dutch Government, but the power of VOCs on Sangihe later ended in 1789.
- Early commencement of the influence of Dutch power in the Indian government Sangihe namely in 1821 with JC sent Zendeling Jungmichel from Ambon by the Reverend Joseph Thurs
From the above explanation it can be concluded that since the year 1563, the kingdom - the kingdom disangihe have been in contact with Portuguese, Spanish and VOCs. Since the year 1821 began disangihe royal power is influenced by the Dutch East Indies government. In the reign of the Dutch East Indies since 1821, the royal government system is no longer based on dynastic but by the will of the Government of the Netherlands East Indies.
At that time in the territory of existing Sangihe keraajaan-kingdom influenced by Europe. Kingdom - the kingdom are:
a. Kingdom of Manarou (Manado).
Manarou not Minahasa. (Minahasa history-Contract
January 19, 1679). Manarou taken from the word
Sangihe Mararau, drought which means a lot. This kingdom
centered on the island of Manado Tua precisely in place
named country (Menado old village - I, now). Empire
Manarou founded by Daloda Loloda Mokoagow on
the period 1644-1674. Inhabitants of this kingdom
is the Sangihe (Graafland, Minahasa past and
Today, Joost Leather translation.) According to Note
Padburgge Robertus, 1867, the kingdom was destroyed by
protracted war with the Kingdom Bolaang.
b. Kolongan kingdom.
The kingdom is the place of kedatuan
Mangsohoang. Earlier arrival of Europeans, this kingdom
Administered by the king in the mid Pontoralage
c. Siau kingdom.
Earlier arrival of Europeans, the Kingdom is Below
King Passuma power. The reign of Pasumah
years 1540-1575. King died in Passuma
1587, and replaced by his son Don Jeronimo
(Pontowuisang / Betewiwihe) On August 16, 1593,
Don Jeronimo took the oath of allegiance to
Spanish government in Manila by the Spanish governor
Gomez Perez Dasmarinas. Don Jeronimo begot
Winsulangi. In 1619, baptized at King Winsulangi
Paseng and became Don Jeronimo Winsulangi.
(D. Brillman, Zending in Kepl.Sangi and Talaud). Don
Jeronimo Winsulangi Batahi replaced by his son, 1642 -
1678. Center of the kingdom was moved from Paseng to Pehe.
d. Tabukan kingdom,
The king who ruled the kingdom Tabukan early days of the arrival of Europeans was the king Wuateng worship (Pahawuateng). The kingdom was centered in Sahabe. Wuateng memperisteri Tasikoa, daughter of Queen Lohoraung Taghulandang. Wuateng worship was replaced by his son Mark Vasco da Gama. (Giddy Banua). This king reigned while the Spanish entry in Tabukan.
KINGDOM CASTLE COMPLEX Tabukan
Period into two
1. Tahuna kingdom under another name Malahasa,
Based in bukide Tahuna. Tahuna kingdom founded by King Tatehewoba (Ansawuwo) son of king Pontoralage years 1580 to 1625. Tatehe memperisteri Doloweli children from Makaampo with Timbangsehiwu wife. Tatehewoba Buntuang replaced by his son, lau replaced by his son Don Martin Tatandangnusa.
2. Kingdom of Malinggaheng Kendahe with another name, centered on Makiwulaeng. The first king named royal kendahe Egaliwutang (Mehegalangi) son of Sultan Ahmad in Mindanao. Reigned from 1600-1640. Egaliwutang Wuisan replaced by his son. King Wuisan moved to Minahasa since returning from Mindanao after learning his wife was married to someone else. Its presence in Minahasa is unknown. Wuisan kingship was replaced by his son Sham Syach Nature.
3. Kingdom of Mandolokang Taghulandang with another name, centered on the kingdom's first Tulusan.Raja Taghulandang is a woman named Lohoraung. 1570-1609 reign.
4. Kingdom of Maobungang Manganitu with another name, the kingdom was founded by Tolosang Manganitu (liung tolosang) with the royal name Kauhis, in 1600. His reign lasted until 1645. Maobungang naming taken from the story of a brave man named Barangkalang Lumanu who has knowledge of magic smoke. Science is then terwaris to King Manuel Hariraya Mokodompis (tanawata). The first royal center is located in Bowongtiwo (village kauhis now). Tolosang was the son of Jogugu Naleng of Manganitu with his wife Kaeng (lekung) Patola. Kaeng patola is the son of Kulano Makalupa and Sangiang Kindi. Tolosang then memperisteri Ahungsehiwu and begot Tompoliu and Lembungsengsale. In 1645 until 1670, became king over the kingdom Tompoliu Manganitu and move the center of the kingdom of Bowongtiwo to Tatahikang. Tompoliu memperisteri Lawewe and begot Bataha Santiago, Charles Diamanti, Sapelah, Apueng and Gaghinggihe.
Since Tompoliu died, the royal power replaced by Bataha Santiagho. Santiago is the first to oppose the king Sangihe future VOC VOC final rule. Since in Santiago kill him by the VOC, the royal power was no longer based kemonarkian royal family but by a desire VOC and continue until the time of Colonialism even during the Japanese occupation. In the reign of Willem Pandensolang Mokodompis Manuel, king power over these three areas, namely the kingdom of Tahuna, in Karatung soa Manganitu Kingdom and the Kingdom Manganitu in Tamako. This happens because the influence of the Dutch power.
CASTLE KINGDOM MANGANITU
THE DURATION OF ADMINISTRATION
King Willem MANUEL PANDENSOLANG MOKODOMPIS
CLOTHES AND THE KING TANAWATA MOKODOMPIS
Monarchy System kingdoms Sangihe ended since the start of the Dutch Colonial. Dutch power began to strengthen in Sangihe after some king signed a friendship treaty (Lange Verklaring Contrac) starting from the year 1677. King - king of the subject is: Franciscus Makaampo Judah - I Kings Tabukan, Don Martin Tatandangnusa king Tahuna, Takaengetang (Djoutulung) King Manganitu. Wuisan King Kendahe, Philips Anthoni Aralungnusa Taghulandang King, Don Jeronimo Winsulangi King Siau. Since that time the king's appointment is no longer performed by the king's lineage heir to the eldest son but was appointed by the Dutch interests.
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